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MISSION FURNITURE 

HOW TO MAKE IT 
PART TWO 



POPULAR MECHANICS HANDBOOKS 



CHICAGO 
POPULAR MECHANICS COMPANY 



Copyrighted, 1910 

By H. H. WINDSOR 



THIS book is one of the series of 
handbooks on industrial subjects 
being published by the Popular 
Mechanics Co. Like the magazine, these 
books are "written so you can under- 
stand it," and are intended to furnish 
information on mechanical subjects at a 
price within the reach of all. 

The texts and illustrations have been 
prepared expressly for this Handbook 
Series, by experts; are up-to-date, and 
have been revised by the editor of Pop- 
ular Mechanics. 



THE dimensions given in the stock 
list contained in the description 
of each piece of furniture illus- 
trated in this book call for material 
millplaned, sanded and cut to length. 
If the workman desires to have a com- 
plete home-made article, allowance 
must be made in the dimensions for 
planing and squaring the pieces. S-4-S 
and S-2-S are abbreviations for surface 
four sides and surface two sides. 



AN OAK BUFFET 



The accompanying sketch and detail drawing show 
a design of a buffet wherein refinement of outline 




Finished Buffet 



and harmony of details are conspicuously regarded. 
Quarter-sawed oak is the most suitable wood for 
this handsome piece of mission furniture. The 
material should be ordered from the mill ready cut 





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OAK BUFFET 



Following is a list 



to length, squared and sanded. 
of the stock needed : 

2 back posts, 2 by 2 by 47£4 in. 

2 front posts, 2 by 2 by 45 £2 in, 

4 rails, V/ 2 by \y 2 by 50^ in. 

2 end rails, l l / 2 by iy 2 by 18J4 in. 

4 end rails, Ya by 4 by 18^ in. 

4 pieces for end panel, Ya by 3J^ by 21 in. 

2 panels, f6 by 12 by 21 in. 

1 top board, Ya by 17 y 2 by 47 l A in. 

1 back board, Ya by liy 2 by 47^ in. 

1 shelf board, Ya by 2 by 46 in. 

2 brackets, 1 by 2 by 7 Ya in. 

4 pieces for doors, Ya by 4 by 11 in. 
2 panels, ^ by 11 bv liy 2 in. 
1 piece for drawer, 54 by 8 by 22 y 2 in. 
1 piece for drawer, Ya by 7J4 by 22^ in. 

1 piece for drawer, Ya by 7 by 22^2 in. 

2 pieces, y 2 by 8 by 19J4 in. ; soft wood. 

2 pieces, 54 by l l / 2 by 19J4 in. ; soft wood. 

2 pieces, J^ by 7 by 19 x /± in.", soft wood. 

1 piece, y 2 by 8 by 19^ in. ; soft wood. 

1 piece, y 2 by iy 2 by 19 J4 in.; soft wood. 

1 piece, J4 by 7 bv 19% in. ; soft wood. 

1 bottom board, Ya by \l l / 2 by 47 J4 in.; soft wood. 

2 partitions (several pieces), Ya by 20 by 24^4 in. 
2 front pieces, Ya by 2 by 23 in. 

2 back pieces, Ya by 2 by 23 in. ; soft wood. 

2 side pieces, Ya by 2 by 21 J4 in. ; soft wood. 

1 back (several pieces), M.by 25 by 46 in. 

1 mirror frame (to suit mirror). 

Start to work on the four posts by squaring them 
up to the proper length in pairs and beveling the tops 
as shown. Clamp all four pieces on a flat surface 
with the bottom ends even, then lay out the mortises 
for the rails and panels on all four pieces at once 
with a try-square. This insures getting the mortises 
all the same height. The back posts also have a 
mortise cut in them at the top for the back board as 
shown. Lay out the tenons on the ends of the front 
and back rails in the same manner. Cut them to fit 
the mortises in the posts, also rabbet the back rails 
for the backing. Cut tenons on the end rails and 
rabbet them and the side pieces for the panels. 

Lay out the top and bottom boards to the proper 



OAK BUFFET 



size and notch the corners to fit about the posts. 
These boards are fastened to the 1%-in. square rails 
with dowels and glue. They can now be glued to- 
gether and set away to dry. The top board is of oak, 
and be sure to get the best side up, while the bottom 
one can be made of soft wood if desired. 

The partitions are made of several boards glued 
together. Be careful to get an oak board on the 
outer edge. The drawer slides are set into the par- 
titions as shown and are fastened in place with 
screws from the inside. 

The top back board has a tenon on each end that 
fits into the mortises in the back posts and is rounded 
at the top as shown. The shelf is also rounded at the 
ends and is fastened to the back with screws. 

A plate glass mirror should be provided for the 
back. This is fitted to the back board as shown, then 
the brackets put up at the ends of the mirror frame. 

The main parts are now ready to be assembled 
and glued together. Before applying any glue, see 
that all the joints fit together perfectly. The end 
rails and the panels are glued together first and al- 
lowed to dry. Be very careful to get the parts 
clamped together perfectly square and straight, else 
you will have trouble later on. When these ends are 
dry slip them on the tenons on the front and back 
rails which are already fastened to the top and bot- 
tom boards. 

The back board and the partitions must be in 
place when this is done. Pin and glue the joints and 
clamp the whole together square and leave to dry. 

The doors are now made by mortising the top and 
bottom pieces to take the %-in. panel which is glued 
in place. The drawers are made as shown in the 



OAK STAIN 9 

sketch. The front board should be oak, but the re- 
mainder can be made of soft wood. The joints are 
nailed and glued. Suitable hinges for the doors and 
handles for the drawers should be provided. An- 
tique copper trimmings look very well with this style 
of furniture and can be secured at most any hard- 
ware store. 

The back is made of soft wood and is put on in the 
usual manner. Scrape all surplus glue from about 
the joints, as stain will not take where there is any 
glue. Finish smooth with fine sandpaper, then ap- 
ply the stain you like best. This can be any one of 
the many mission stains supplied by the trade for 
this purpose. 



OAK STAIN 

An easy and at the same time a good way to 
stain oak in imitation of the fumed effect, is to boil 
catechu in the proportion of 14 lb. to 6 lb. of water, 
after which cool and strain. Apply this to the 
wood, and when dry treat with a solution of bichro- 
mate of potash in the same proportion as with the 
catechu. Bichromate of potash alone in water will 
give a good stain. A solution of 2 oz. of pearl ash 
and 2 oz. of potash mixed in a quart of water makes 
a good stain. Potash solution darkens the wood, 
and when applied very strong will produce an almost 
ebon hue, due to what we might describe as the 
burning of the wood fiber. 



A PLAIN OAK HALL CLOCK 

The hall clock shown in the illustration should be 
made of plain oak. The following pieces will be 
needed to make it : 

2 back posts, 1H by 1H by 81 in., S-4-S. 

2 front posts, V/ 2 by V/ 2 by 21 in., S-4-S. 

2 front posts, iy 2 by l l / 2 by 44 in., S-4-S. 
10 front and back horizontals, l l / 2 by \y 2 by 15 in., S-4-S. 
10 side horizontals, \y 2 by V/ 2 by 11 in., S-4-S. 

1 face, H by 14 by 14 in., S-4-S. 

FRONT DOORS 
4 rails, H by V/ 2 by 18 in., S-4-S. 
4 stiles, H by 1# by 12 in., S-4-S. 
4 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by H by 11 in., S-4-S. 
4 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by % by 11 in., S-4-S. 
4 vertical mullions, 3/16 by H by 15 in., S-4-S. 

2 vertical mullions, 3/16 by ii by 15 in., S-4-S. 

BACK 

1 piece, y s by 14 by 21 in., S-4-S. 

2 pieces, H by 14 by 18 in., S-4-S. 

4 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by H by 14 in., S-4-S. 
4 vertical mullions, 3/16 by H by 20 in., S-4-S. 
TOP SIDE PANELS 

2 pieces, V s by 9J4 by 14 in., S-4-S. 
8 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by H by 9^4 in., S-4-S. 
6 vertical mullions, 3/16 by H by 14 in., S-4-S. 
2 middle side panels, H by 9j4 by 20 in., S-2-S. 

LOWER SIDE PANELS 
8 vertical mullions, 3/16 by H by 18 in., S-4-S. 
8 vertical mullions, 3/16 by H by 18 in.„ S-4-S. 
8 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by ¥4 by 9 J 4 in., S-4-S.. 
8 horizontal mullions, 3/16 by % by %y 2 in., S-4-S. 

If the worker will take the trouble to combine the 
different lengths of pieces having like thicknesses 
and widths into pieces of standard lengths, he will be 
able to save himself some expense at the mill with 
no more work for himself. 

Begin work by shaping the ends of the posts as in- 
dicated in the drawing. Lay out and cut the mor- 
tises for the tenons of the horizontals or rails. These 
mortises need not be deep if the joints are to be rein- 
forced later with lag screws as is the clock shown. 



They may be what are 
known as stub tenons and 
mortises. The tenons are 
not more than Y 2 in. long, 
just enough to keep the rail 
from turning about. 

Next lay out and cut the 
tenons on the rails. Bore 
the holes for the lag screws, 
being careful to bore on ad- 
jacent surfaces so that the 
holes will miss each other. 
Use a % by 3-in. lag screw, 
boring the hole in the tenon 
with a ^-in. bit the full 
depth the screw is to enter. 

The side panels should 
be fitted into grooves in the 
rails, and before the frame 
is put together these panels 
should be squared up and 
the grooves cut in the rails 
and posts at the proper 
places. 

The mullions of the 
lower side panels, it will be 
noted, are specified % and 
% in. wide. The %-in. 
pieces are for the central 
parts of the frame and the 
others for the outside. The 
frame is to be made % in. 
larger all around than the 
distance between the posts 
and between the rails so 
that it may be set in 




A4 




Details of Hall Clock 



HALL CLOCK 



13 



grooves cut in the posts and the rails to a similar 
depth, J /s in. This is true, also, of the mullions 
of the front doors. Square up the shelves so that 
they may be set into grooves in the adjacent rails. 
The middle shelf is to have an overhang and will 
rest upon the rails. 

The mullions of the top side panels are all of the 
same width, and it is not intended or necessary to 
set their frame into grooves in the posts. The wood 
panel back of them gives ample strength. 

It is a good plan not to groove the panel upon 
which the figures are placed, and which becomes 
the face of the clock. It is better to fit this piece 
in and fasten metal or wood buttons on the back 
side so that it can be readily taken off to get at the 
clock movement from the front. 

Make the doors, tenoning the rails into the stiles 
and grooving both to receive the mullioned frame- 
work of fV-in. stuff. 

Put the whole frame together, using good hot 
glue for the joints. When the glue has dried suffi- 
ciently to allow the clamps to be taken off, fit the 
doors and hinge them. Butterfly surface hinges look 
well and are the easiest to apply. 

Thoroughly scrape all the surplus glue off and 
sandpaper the parts preparatory to applying the 
finish. 

To finish, apply one coat of mission oak water 
stain. When dry, sandpaper lightly, using No. 00 
paper. Apply a second coat, diluted with an equal 
amount of water. Sand this lightly and put on a 
very thin coat of shellac to keep the filler color, 
which follows, from discoloring the high lights. 
When the shellac has had time to harden, sand 



14 ROCKING CHAIR 

lightly and put on a coat of paste filler. Use light 
filler, colored with umber and Venetian red in the 
proportion of 12 oz. of umber, and 4 oz. of red to 
20 lb. of filler. The directions for applying the filler 
will be found on the can labels. On the hardened 
filler apply a thin coat of shellac. Sand the shellac 
lightly and put on several coats of some good floor 
wax, polishing well according to the directions on 
the can. This is what is known as a mission oak 
finish and is quite popular for this type of furniture 
design. 

The metal figures for the dial come with the clock 
movement. Some of the movements come already 
set in boxes of wood so that all one needs to do is 
to shape the projecting ends of the wood containing 
boxes and fasten them to the frame with screws 
from the back. A clock with dial figures, eight-day 
movement, striking the hours and half hours, with 
cathedral gong can be bought for $4, possibly less. 



A ROCKING CHAIR 

In furniture construction such as this, nothing is 
gained by trying to plane up the stock out of the 
rough. This is mere drudgery and can be more 
cheaply and easily done at the planing mill by 
machinery. There will be plenty to do to cut and 
fit all the different parts. Order the pieces mill- 
planed and sandpapered to the sizes specified below. 

Plain sawed red oak takes a mission finish nicely 
and is appropriate. Some people like quartered 
white oak better, however. The cost is about the 
same. 






ROCKING CHAIR 



15 



The stock for the chair is as follows: Widths and 
thicknesses are specified exact except for the rear 
posts and the rockers ; but to the lengths enough sur- 




Rocking Chair Complete 

stock has been added to allow for squaring 
the ends. 

2 front posts, 



plus 



. iy& by 234 by 22 # in., S-4-S. 
2 back posts, 1H by 11 by 40 in., S-2-S. 
1 front horizontal, H by 3^ by 22 in., S-4-S. 

1 back horizontal, H by Z { / 2 by 20 in., S-4-S. 

2 back horizontals, Ya by Sy 2 by 20 in., S-4-S. 
2 side horizontals, K by 3% by 20 in., S-4-S. 
2 back slats, 5/16 by 3^ by 20 in., S-4-S. 

2 arms, 1 by 4% by 25 in., S-2-S. 

1 rocker, 2J4 by 6 by 33 in., S-2-S. 

5 bottom slats, y A by 2)/ 2 by 19J4 in., S-4-S. 



Begin work on the posts first. The front posts 
should have one end of each squared, after which 



ROCKING CHAIR 



17 



they can be cut to the exact length. The rear 
posts, according to the stock bill, are specified for 
the exact thickness. By exercising forethought, both 
may be got from the piece ordered. The tops and 
bottoms of the posts should have their edges slightly 
chamfered to prevent their slivering. 

The shape of the arm is a little out of the or- 
dinary, but the drawing indicates quite clearly how 
it is cut. The arm is fastened to the posts by means 
of dowels and glue after the other parts of the chair 
have been put together. 

Now prepare the curved parts of the back. These 
parts are worked to size, after which they are 
thoroughly steamed and bent in the forms described 
on another page. These forms should have a surface 
curve whose radius is 22 in. While the parts are 
drying out, go ahead with the cutting of the mortises 
and tenons of post and rail. 

Inasmuch as the width of the front of the chair 
exceeds that of the back by 2 in., allowance must 
be made for slant either in the tenons of the side 
rails or in the mortises. This will necessitate the 
use of the bevel in laying off the shoulders of the 
tenons. 

The slats for the bottom are made long enough so 
that their ends may be "let into" the front and back 
rails, a %-in. groove being plowed to receive them. 

Assemble the back, then the front; and when the 
glue on them has dried, put the side rails in place, 
then the arms. The chair should now be scraped 
and sandpapered preparatory to applying the finish. 

The cushion shown in the picture is made of 
Spanish roan skin leather and is filled with elastic 
felt. Such cushions can be purchased at the up- 



18 



CURVED BACK ARM CHAIR 



holsterer's or they can be made by the craftsman 
himself. Frequently the two parts of the cushion 
are laced together by means of leather thongs. 



A CURVED BACK ARM CHAIR 

The arm chair, the picture and drawing of which 
is given herewith is a companion piece to the rocker 
described on another page. 

With the exception of the back legs the stock bill 
which follows gives the thicknesses and widths 
exact. To the length, however, enough has been 
added to allow squaring up the ends. 

Plain sawed white or red oak will be suitable for 
a design such as this. 

Front posts, 2 pieces, 1H by 2J4 by 26 in., S-4-S. 
Back posts, 1 piece, 1H by 8 by 45 in , S-2-S. t 
Front horizontals, 2 pieces, # by Sy 2 by 21 J4 in.. »-|-s- 
Rear horizontals, 4 pieces, H by 3j4 by 1934 p., g*J - g- 
Side horizontals, 4 pieces, Va, by 3^ by 19)4 in., S-4-b. 
liack slats, 2 pieces, 5/16 by 3# by 19 # in., S-4-S. 
Arms, 2 pieces, 1% by 4 by 24 in S;4-S 
Seat slats, 5 pieces, % by 234 by 20 in., S-4-S. 

Begin work by squaring up the ends of the front 
posts and shaping the rear ones Chamfer the ends 
of the tops and bottoms slightly so that they shall 
not splinter through usage. Next lay out the mor- 
tises and tenons. 

The curved horizontals for the back should now 
be prepared and steamed as described on another 
page. The curved form to which the steamed piece 
is to be clamped to give shape to it should be curved 
slightly more than is wanted in the piece, as the 
piece when released will tend to straighten a little. 

The arms of the chair may be shaped while these 
pieces are drying on the forms. The rails of the 



CURVED BACK ARM CHAIR 



19 



front and back may be tenoned, too. It should be 
noted that the front of the chair is wider than the 
back. This will necessitate care in mortising and 
tenoning the side rails so as to get good fits for the 




Arm Chair Having Bent-Wood Back 

shoulders The bevel square will be needed in lay- 
ing out the shoulders of the tenons. 

Assemble the back, then the front. When the 
glue has hardened on these parts so that the clamps 
may be removed, put in the side rails or horizontals 






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1 



PLATE RACK 21 

and again adjust the clamps. The arms are to be 
fastened to the posts with dowels and glue. 

The seat, it will be seen from the drawing, is to 
be a loose leather cushion to rest upon slats. These 
seat slats may be fastened to cleats which have been 
previously fastened to the inside of the front and 
back seat rails or they may be "let in" to these rails 
by grooving their inner surfaces before the rails 
have been put in place. The latter method is more 
workmanlike, but more difficult. 

A cushion such as is shown can be purchased ready 
made up, or it may be made by the amateur by 
lacing together two pieces of Spanish leather cut to 
size and punched along the edges so as to allow 
a lacing of leather thong. It may be filled with 
hair or elastic felt such as upholsterers use. 

Probably the simplest finish that can be used is 
* weathered oak. Put on a coat of weather oak oil 
stain, sandpaper lightly when dry and then put on a 
very thin coat of shellac. Sand this lightly and 
follow with two or more coats of floor wax put on 
in very thin coatings and polished well. 



A PLATE RACK 

The plate rack shown in the accompanying il- 
lustration is designed for use in a room furnished in 
mission style. The dimensions may be changed to 
suit the wall space. The parts are held together en- 
tirely by keys. The bar across the front is for keep- 
ing the plates from falling out, but this may be left 
out if the plates are allowed to lean against the wall. 

The following list of material will be needed, and, 



22 



PLATE RACK 



if the builder does not care to do the rough work, 
the stock can be ordered planed, sanded and cut to 
the exact size of the dimensions given. 



2 ends, % by 5 by 20 in. 
1 top, % by 6 by 36 in. 
1 shelf, i/% by 5 by 36 in. 
1 bar, 7/% in. square by 36 in. 
4 keys. Scrap pieces will do. 



Lay out and cut the mortises on the end pieces for 
the tenons of the shelf, also the tenons on the top 




Parts Held Together by Keys 



ends and the diamond shaped openings. In laying 
these out, work from the back edge of the pieces. 
Cut the tenons on the ends of the shelf to fit the 
mortises in the end pieces, numbering each one so 
the parts can be put together with the tenons in 
the proper mortises. Mark out and cut the mor- 
tises in the top to receive the tenons on the end 
pieces. 

In laying out the mortises for the keys allow a lit- 
tle extra on the side toward the shoulder so the ends 
and tops may be drawn up tightly when the keys are 



DOWEL. HOLES 



23 



driven in the mortises. All the mortises and dia- 
mond shaped openings should be marked and cut 
with a chisel from both sides of the board. 

If the bar is used, it may be attached with a flat 
side or edge out as shown. 

Finish the pieces separately with any weathered 
or fumed oak stain. When thoroughly dry, apply 



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Details of Plate Rack 

a very thin coat of shellac. Finish with two coats of 
wax. The rack can be attached to the wall by two 
mirror plates fastened on the back edges of the end 
pieces. 

TOOL FOR MARKING DOWEL HOLES 

On some work it is quite difficult to locate the 
exact point for a dowel, but with the tool illustrated 
placed between the joint to be made and the parts 
gently pressed together you have the exact point for 
the dowel in each piece. The tool is made from a 



24 



MAGAZINE TABLE 



piece of sheet steel about l /i in. square with a pin 
having a point on both ends driven in the center, 
as shown in Fig. 1. The tool is placed between the 




Marking Bore Holes for Dowels 



pieces that are to be joined, as shown in Fig. 2. 
The small pin will mark the point for the bit in both 
pieces exactly opposite. 



A MAGAZINE TABLE 

This little magazine table will be found a very useful 
piece of furniture for the den or library. Its small 
size permits it to be set anywhere in a room without 
being in the way. Quarter-sawed oak should be used 
in its construction, and the following pieces will be 
needed : 

4 legs, 2 by 2 by 20 in., S-4-S. 
4 end slats, y 2 by 2 bv 10 in., S-4-S. 
1 shelf, 1 by 16 by 30 in., S-l-S. 
1 top board, 1 by 18 by 36 in., S-l-S. 

If you are convenient to a planing mill you can se- 
cure these pieces ready cut to length, squared and 
sanded. This will save you considerable labor. 

The four legs are finished on all sides and cham- 
fered at the bottom to prevent the corners from split- 



MAGAZINE TABLE 



25 




Table Complete 



ting. The mortises for the shelf should be cut 9 in. 
from the top of each leg, as shown in the sketch. Care 
should be taken to make these a perfect fit. 

The shelf should be finished on the top side and 
the four edges, and the corners cut out to fit the mor- 
tises in the table legs. An enlarged view of this joint 
is shown in the sketch. 

The top board may have to be made of two 9 -in. 
boards, dove-tailed and glued together. It should be 
finished on the top side and the edges. The edges can 
be beveled if desired. The board is fastened to the legs 
by means of screws through four small brass angles. 
These angles can be made or they can be purchased 
at any hardware store. 



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WASTE PAPER BASKKT 



27 



The top board and the shelf should be mortised at 
each end for the y 2 by 2-in. slats. These slats should 
be finished on all sides. 

The table is now ready to be assembled and glued 
together. The glue should dry at least 24 hours before 
the clamps are removed. 

After the glue is dry, carefully go over the entire 
table with fine sandpaper and remove all surplus glue 
and rough spots. It can now be finished in any one of 
the mission stains which are supplied by the trade for 
this purpose. 



A WASTE PAPER BASKET 

A waste paper basket of pleasing design, and very 
easy to construct, is shown in the accompanying 
sketch. Quarter-sawed oak 
is the best wood to use, and 
it is also the easiest to ob- 
tain. The following pieces 
will be needed : 

1 bottom piece, % by 9 in. 

H 



square 



square. 
4 corner pieces, 

by 15 J^ in, 
4 top rails, H in - square by l l / 2 



in. 



12 slats, % by H by 16J4 in. 
4 blocks, 1 in. square. 
4 F.H. screws, 2 l / 2 in. long. 
24 R.H. screws, % in. long. 

If the pieces are ordered 
from the mill cut to length, 
squared and sanded, much 
labor will be saved. First 
bevel the ends of the corner 
posts and the slats, as shown, and finish them with 




28 



WASTE PAPER BASKET 



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sandpaper. Bore the holes 
in the posts and the railing 
for the dowel pins. These 
pins should he about % in. 
in diameter and % in. long. 
When this is done the parts 
can be glued together and 
laid aside to dry. The four 
blocks 1 in. square are for 
the feet. Bore holes through 
these blocks and the corners 
of the bottom board for the 
large screws to go through. 
Fasten them together by 
running the screws through 
the blocks, and the board 
into the ends of the corner 
posts as shown in the sketch. 
The 14-in. slats can now be 
fastened on with the small 
round-headed screws. They 
should be evenly spaced on 
the four sides. This com- 
pletes the basket except for 
the finish. This can be any 
one of the many finishes sup- 
plied by the trade for this 
purpose. 



AN OAK WRITING DESK 

For the writing desk shown in the accompanying 
picture the following stock will be needed. The thick- 
nesses of all the pieces are specified. On the legs the 
widths, too, are specified. Quarter-sawed white oak is 
the best wood to use, and it should be well seasoned 
and clear of shakes and other imperfections. 

STOCK BILL 
2 front posts, l$i by 1U by 34 in., S-4-S., oak. 
2 back posts, 1H by 1H by 42 in., S-4-S., oak. 
2 lower side rails, % by 3^ by 15 in., S-2-S., oak. 

1 lower back rail, y 4 by 3% by 27 in., S-2-S., oak. 

2 sides, H by 9 by 14 in., S-2-S., oak. 

2 sides, H by 10^4 by 14 in., S-2-S., oak. 

1 back, Y A by 9 by 26 in., S-2-S., oak. 

1 back, Y A by 10^ by 26 in., S-2-S., oak. 

1 top, M by 6 by 30 in., S-2-S,, oak. 

1 lid, V A by 15 by 28 in., S-2-S., oak. 

2 side shelves, H by 5 by 16 in., S-2-S., oak. 
4 braces, H by 1% by 9 in., S-2-S., oak. 

1 bottom of case, V A by 16 by 28 in., S-2-S., oak. 
INTERIOR 

1 piece, H by 10 by 27 in., S-2-S., oak. 

4 drawer and case bottom supports, H by 2y 2 by 28 in., S-2-S., oak. 
6 drawer and case bottom supports, J4 by 2}/ 2 by 16 in., S-2-S., oak. 
4 drawer guides, y A by y A by 16 in., S-2-S., oak. 
DRAWERS 

2 front pieces, y 4 by iy 2 by 13 in., S-2-S., oak. 

4 side pieces, y% by iy 2 by 16 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

2 back pieces, ^i by 7 by 12 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

2 bottom pfeces, yk by 16 by 12 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

PIGEON HOLES 
1 bottom, fV by l l / A by 27 in., S-2-S., poplar. 
1 top, fV by 4y 2 by 27 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

4 verticals, -fV by 7% by 10 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

1 vertical, fV by 4^ by 4 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

5 horizontals, fi by iy 2 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

2 horizontals, 4 y 2 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

DRAWERS IN PIGEON HOLES 
2 front, H by 2H by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar. 
4 sides, & by 2% by 7 54 in., S-2-S., poplar. 
2 backs, ft by 2*4 by 9 in., S-2-S., poplar. 
2 bottoms, ^ by 7J4 bv 9 in., S-2-S., poplar. 

Begin work by cutting the posts to length and shape. 
Having done this, lay out the tenons on the lower 
rails so as to have the required distances between the 
shoulders, and then cut them. Now cut the parts to 



OAK WRITING DESK 



31 



be worked into the frames that support the drawer 
and bottom of the case, and glue them properly. 
While this is drying, the other parts of the case may 
be laid out and shaped. It is intended that the sides 
of the case shall splice on the edge of the bottom 




Writing Desk Complete 

of the pigeon hole case. In this manner the side 
shelves will cover the joint on either end. The back 
may be made up into one solid piece. Make the side 
pieces of the case long enough to be housed into the 
posts about % in. at each end. 

The shelves at the ends of the desk should be 
fastened after the frame is put together and before 



32 



OAK WRITING DESK 



the bottom of the case for the pigeon holes is fitted 
and fastened. In so doing the shelves may be fast- 
ened from the inside of the case. The angles of the 
braces are 30-60 deg. It will be noted that the edges 
of the lid are rabbeted. Another way is to have the 
lid large enough to fit entirely over the sides of the 
case and change the slope to correspond. 

The drawers may be made next. The fronts 
should be of oak, but the other parts of yellow pop- 
lar. An examination of an ordinary drawer will 
show the manner of construction. 

Make the frame of the pigeon holes of T %-in. yel- 
low poplar. The drawing shows an arrangement en- 
tirely independent of the sides of the desk so that 
the frame can be made and slipped in place after 
the finish has been put on. Two drawers are shown. 
These are faced front and back alike so as to secure 
as much room in the drawer as possible. 
t In the finishing, the poplar wood should be fin- 
ished with white shellac in the natural light color of 
the wood. For the oak parts the following is ap- 
propriate for this design ; Apply one coat of green 
Flemish water stain. When this has dried, sand- 
paper lightly until the raised grain has been re- 
moved, and apply another coat of stain diluted one- 
half with water. When dry, sand lightly and apply 
a very thin coat of shellac. Sand lightly and apply 
a coat of dark filler, natural filler colored with lamp- 
black, according to the somberness of the finish de- 
sired. Upon this put a coat of orange shellac. After 
this, put on two coats of a good rubbing varnish. 
Rub the first coats with curled hair or haircloth and 
the last with pulverized pumice stone and raw lin- 
seed oil or crude oil. 



AN OAK COUCH WITH CUSHIONS 

This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be 
made at a very moderate cost, if the material used 
for the cushions is of good imitation leather. 
These substitutes for leather last fully as long and 
the difference can only be detected by an expert. 
White oak will give the best results except for the 
frames or slats on which the cushions rest and 
these may be made of poplar or pine. If a mill or 
woodworking shop of any kind is handy, the hardest 
part of the work can be saved by securing the 
following list of material, cut, planed, sanded and 
squared up to the exact sizes given : 

2 posts, 3 in. square by 17 in. 
2 posts, 3 in. square by 26 in. 
2 rails, % by 8 by 82 in. 
1 rail, % by 8 by 25 in. 
1 end, 7/s by 18 by 25 in. 
1 piece, Yz by 9 by 24J4 in. 

The last piece on the list when sawed diagonal 
makes the two slanting pieces at the head f of the 
couch. The corner braces are made from two 
pieces of straight-grained oak, 2 by 4V£> by 4^ in., 
sawed on the diagonal, and cut as shown in the 
enlarged plan section to make the four pieces. 

First be sure the legs are perfectly square, the 
two short ones and the two long ones of equal length 
respectively. Either chamfer or round the upper 
ends as desired, chisel and plane the taper on the 
lower ends. Lay out and cut all the tenons on the 
rails — 1 in. is the amount allowed at each end in 
the stock dimensions given. Arrange the posts 
and rails in the positions they are to occupy in the 




finished couch. 
Number each tenon 
and the place its 
corresponding mor- 
tise is to be cut in 
the post. Mark 
each mortise di- 
rectly from the 
tenon which is to 
fit into it, taking 
care to have all the 
rails an equal dis- 
tance from the 
floor. Bore and 
chisel out all mor- 
tises and see that 
all the rails fit per- 
fectly, before pro- 
ceeding with the 
work. 

The next step 
will be to fit in the 
slanting side pieces 
at the head of the 
couch. These must 
be let into the long 
posts V2 i n - an d 
held also by a 
dowel in the side 
rail. In order to get 
these pieces into 
place, the mortise 
in the long post 
must be made % fa. 
longer than the 
tenon on the slop- 



OAK COUCH 



35 



ing side piece so the tenon may be first pushed 
into the mortise and then the side clamped down 
on the rail over the dowel. The whole couch should 
fit together perfectly before gluing any of the parts. 

Glue the end parts together first. Hot glue will 
hold best if the room and lumber are warm; if these 
cannot be had, use cold glue. After the ends have 
set for at least 24 hours, glue in place the side rails 
and slanting head pieces. Screw in place the corner 
braces. Be sure when making these braces to have 
the grain running diagonally across the corner, or 
the brace will be weak, also, be sure the sides are 
square with the ends; this may be determined by 
measuring the diagonals to find if they are equal. 

If it is decided to use frames for the cushions, then 
the following material will be necessary : 

2 pieces, % by 2 by 56 in. 
2 p'eces, 7/ 8 by 2 by 25 in. 
4 pieces H by 2 by 21 in. 

This material may be of pine or poplar. These 
pieces are made into two frames as shown in the 
drawing and held together with long screws or nails. 
Fasten with glue and screw short blocks on the in- 
side of the couch rails for holding the two frames in 
place. Tack pieces of cheap burlap across the frame 
and cover with ordinary black cambric. This will 
give a strong, springy rest for the cushions. 

Should slats be used instead of frames for holding 
the cushions, then the following list of material 
should be substituted for the frame material list: 

2 cleats, % by 2 by 50 in. 
2 cleats, % by 2 by 25 in. 
12 slats, Y A by 5 by 25 in. 

The materials listed may be of soft wood the same 
as for the frame. The cleats are fastened to the in- 







43 

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ELECTRIC SHADE 



37 



side of the rails of the couch with screws, so the top 
edge will be 2 in, lower than the top edge of the rails. 
The slats are spaced evenly on these cleats. 

After the glue is all set, remove the clamps and 
scrape off any glue that may be on the wood. If 
this glue is not removed it will keep the stain from 
entering the wood, which will show up when 
finished in white spots. 

This couch may be stained in any of the shades 
of brown or dark to harmonize with its lines of con- 
struction. A water stain will penetrate the wood 
best and after this is applied and thoroughly dried 
the surface should be well sanded to remove the 
roughness of the raised grain. Apply one coat of 
thin shellac and when this is dry, put on two coats 
of wax. 

In making up the cushions, use either hair or 
elastic felt for the filling. 



ELECTRIC SHADE FOR THE DINING ROOM 

The dining shade shown is constructed of wood 
and glass. There will be needed the following: 

8 pieces, Va by y 4 by 24 in. ( S-4-S, oak. 

4 pieces, Y A by H by 4 in., S-4-S, oak. 

4 pieces, H by ^ by 10*4 in., S-4-S, oak. 

4 pieces, H by H by 23 in., S-4-S, oak. 

8 pieces, U by H by 10 in., S-4-S, oak. 

4 pieces, U by H by 9 in., S-4-S, oak. 

1 piece, y A by 8 by 8 in., S-4-S, oak. 

Begin work by shaping the ends of the longest 
pieces as shown in the drawing. All the angles are 
45 deg. Next lay out the cross-lap joints at the 
corners so that two sets of horizontal frames shall 
be formed 23 by 23 in. Cut four pieces to a length 
of 3 in. each. Also shape up the "false" extensions 



38 



ELECTRIC SHADE 



of these pieces which are to be fastened below the 
lower frame at the corners. Since these are to be 
cut from the pieces just specified, the easiest way is 
to shape the end of each to the required angle and 
then crosscut. Rabbet these pieces sufficient to al- 



3 



"x: 



3$ SQUARE 




Details of Shade 

low the art glass to set in on the back sides and 
be fastened — about %. in. will do — and put them 
together with glue and brads. 

Now make the top square in a similar manner, 
except the rabbets. In this top square is to be fitted 
the %-in. board which is to hold the lights and to 
which the chains are to be fastened. 

The sloping sides are next to be made. The sides 
are to be built up separately, the corners being 
lapped and glued after rabbeting the under arrises 
sufficient to let the glass in. The four sides are 
mitered together at their edges and reinforced by 
covering the joint with copper. 



ELECTRIC SHADE 



39 



These sides are next mitered to the top and bot- 
tom frames and made fast on the under sides with 
copper strips, glue being used on the edges of the 
wood. 

The shade shown had a mottled glass in which 
greens predominated. The sizes and shapes of these 
pieces of glass would better be determined after 
the woodwork is finished. 




Electric Shade Complete 

One manner of fastening the chains is clearly 
shown in the photograph. Such a combination will 
call for an extra piece of oak, % by 3*4 by S 1 /^ in. 
finished stock. 

A good finish for this shade is obtained as fol- 
lows: Put on a coat of silver gray water stain. 



40 



BENDING WOOD 



When this has dried, sand lightly with No. 00 sand- 
paper and apply a coat of golden oak oil stain. Al- 
low this to dry after wiping the surplus off with a 
cloth. Put on a coat of black paste filler and allow 
to harden over night. When dry, sand lightly and 
put on a coat of very thin shellac. Sand this lightly 
when hard and put on a coat of wax. This is a 
very dark finish relieved by high lights of lighter 
brown and is known as Antwerp oak. 



HOW TO BEND WOOD 

The process for making bent wood for furniture 
parts is the same as for any other kind of bent- 
wood work. The pieces should be made close to 
the size, with only enough material left on them for 
"cleaning up" after the bending has been done. The 
pieces used for the bent work should be good, clean, 
"live" lumber. Lumber dried on the stump will 
not bend. 

A box must be made in which to steam the pieces 
of wood to be bent. A design of a steaming box 
is shown in the illustration. Such a box is made by 
nailing four boards together into a square or rec- 
tangular form, the boards having a length sufficient 
to take in the length of the furniture parts to be 
bent. Both ends of the finished box are squared up 
and closed with a board cut to the size, using felt 
or gunny sack in the joint to make it as tight as 
possible. These ends can be nailed on, but it is 
best to hold them with a bar of metal set against 
each one. Nailing the ends a few times would 
spoil the box for further use in steaming. 



BENDING WOOD 



41 




hose: attached to teakettle: 



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m 



42 



BENDING WOOD 



A good teakettle will serve the purpose for a 
steam generator. A hose is attached to the spout 
of the teakettle, as shown in the illustration, and 
to the steaming box in a like manner. The steam- 
ing box should be provided with a short piece of gas 
pipe turned into a hole bored into one of the sides 
used for the top on which to attach the hose. A 
small hole should be bored into one side of one end 
of the steaming box, and this end should be ar- 
ranged a trifle lower than the other end. The hole 
will permit the water of condensation to escape. 
Steam should not escape from the box when a charge 
of wood is being softened. Steam which escapes 
from the box in the form of vapor has done no work 
whatever, and is just so much waste of fuel. In 
order to give up its heat to the wood, the steam 
must condense and come away from the box as 
water. Therefore, in steaming a charge of pieces in 
the box, never crowd the teakettle so hard that 
the steam escapes around the heads of the box or 
through any other joints. The steam should be 
supplied to the box just as fast as it condenses, 
and no faster. When the pieces are placed in the 
box they should be so arranged that the steam can 
find ready access to all sides of each piece. 

The curve or bend of the piece to be made must 
be marked out on a wide board or on the floor. 
Nail down several blocks of wood or pieces cut out 
like brackets on the board or floor against the draw- 
ing, as shown in the illustration. The wood is 
sprung between these blocks or forms after it has 
been softened by steam. When taking the steamed 
pieces from the box do not lose any time in secur- 



SMOKING STAND 



43 



ing them to the forms. Do not take out more than 
one piece at a time, as it must be bent to the forms 
immediately after taking it from the hot steam. The 
time of the steaming will vary with the size of the 
pieces. Small strips may be steamed in 15 or 20 
minutes, while large ones may require several hours 
to become soft enough to bend. The pieces must 
be left in the forms until they are thoroughly dry. 



A SMOKING STAND 

When making the smoking stand shown in the 
accompanying photograph, use quarter-sawed oak, 
if possible, as this wood is the most suitable for 
finishing in the different mission stains. This little 
piece of furniture is very attractive, easy to con- 
struct, and is an article that a smoker would ap- 
preciate. 

If the stock is purchased finished and sandpapered, 
it will save much of the hard work. The material 
needed is as follows: 

One piece, 7/ 8 by 12 in. by ft. long, for the legs. 

One piece, % by 10 in. by 4 ft. long, for the top. 

One piece, % by 8 in. by 4 ft. long, for the shelves. 

One piece, y 2 by 2 in. by G ft. long, for the pipe rack. 

The legs can be made first. Cut four pieces off the 
12-in. board, each exactly 25 in. long, and lay each one 
out with a pair of compasses as shown in the detail 
drawing at Fig. 1. t With a circle or keyhole saw cut 
out the piece, then shave out the saw marks and sand- 
paper smooth. 

Next take the 8-in. board and make the shelves. Set 
a bevel protractor at a 45-deg. angle, lay out the pieces 
as shown in Fig. 5, and cut them out with a saw. 
Eight pieces are cut out as shown in Fig. 4. These 



44 



SMOKING STAND 



pieces can be cut out of the scraps left from cutting 
the legs and shelves. Cut them so that the grain runs 
the long way. Place two of these braces on the bench 
with the beveled ends toward each other, but with a 
piece of %-in. stock between them, and the other two 
beveled ends resting against a straightedge. Fasten 




jfi' 



-$ — -® ® 0- 



-17- 




Smoking Stand Details 



them to the bench with a couple of nails, leaving the 
heads sticking up so that you can pull them later with 
a claw hammer. Remove the straightedge and slide 
the piece that is between the braces along until it pro- 
jects 4 or 5 in. from the side formed by the straight- 



SMOKING STAND 



45 



edge. Then place two more braces in the corners 
formed by this piece, put two %-in. pieces between the 
two braces that are fastened, and the two that are 
loose, so that each brace will be in its proper place. 
Fasten the last two the same as the first pair. Then 
remove all the pieces from between the braces and 




Finished. Smoking Stand 

place the tops of the legs in their stead. These should 
be fastened to the braces with 1-in. screws of small 
diameter, put in at an angle. Bore a hole in straight 
for about 14-in. with a ^-in. bit for each screw, and 
then run a gimlet at an angle into the leg. After you 



46 



SMOKING STAND 



have the legs fastened to the first set of braces, meas- 
ure up from the bench 10 in. and put in another set, 
being careful to get them all the same distance from 
the bench, as the inner corners of the shelves rest on 
these braces. Now pull out the nails and set the stand 
on its feet. 

Next put in the shelves. Place the inner corner of 
one on one of the braces, and fasten it there with a 
screw put through the brace from the bottom. Now 
fasten a clamp on each leg at the ends of the shelf 
in such a manner as to form a support on the top side 
of the shelf. Then put four screws through the shelf 
from the bottom into the legs. Repeat the operation 
on each shelf, being careful to get them all the same 
height. Four pieces" like Fig. 3 should now be made. 
These pieces will have to be fitted in place as they 
should slant outward so that it will be easy to put 
articles through the holes. The holes should be about 
%-in. diameter. 

The top can be made by cutting off two pieces from 
the 10-in. board, each 20 in. long, and fastening them 
together with dowels. Smooth the ends and be sure 
that the boards match evenly. It makes a better job 
to glue the top together, in addition to the dowels, and, 
if you do this, it would be better to make the top first. 
Then it will have time to dry before you are ready to 
use it. In putting on the top, care should be taken to 
get each of the corners an equal distance from the 
legs. Then a screw may be put up through each one 
of the braces and two or three through each leg into 
the top. Now smooth all rough and uneven places 
with fine sandpaper and apply the finish. Secure 
some metal matchsafes and scratchers, fasten on as 
shown in the photograph, and the stand is complete. 



A CHINA CLOSET 

This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be 
made by anyone who has a few good tools and 
knows how to use them. The cost is very moderate 
and if you are convenient to a mill a great amount 
of labor can be saved by ordering the pieces ready 
cut to length, squared, and sanded. Quarter-sawed 
oak should be used and the material needed will 
be as follows: 

4 posts, 2 by 2 by 54 in., S-4-S. 

2 top and bottom boards, H by 15^4 by 39*4 in., S-l-S. 

2 shelves, H b: 15# by 38 in., S-2-S. 

2 lower end braces, H by 5 by 15 in., S-'J-S. 

2 upper end braces, $i by 4^4 by 15 in., S-2-S. 

1 lower front board, U by 3 by 40 in., S-l-S. 

1 upper front board, H by 2*4 by 40 in., S-l-S. 
4 door frames, V 4 by 1& by 43^ in., S-2-S. 

4 door frames, Va by 2 by 19 in., S-2-S. 

4 upright end pieces, M by l l / 2 by 39 J^ in., S-2-S. 

5 back pieces, % by 8 by 46j^ in., S-l-S. 

2 cleats, 1 by 1 by 37^ in., soft wood. 
4 cleats, 1 by 1 by V±Y\ in., soft wood. 
4 blocks, H by 1 by l l / 2 in. 

First be sure the posts are perfectly square and of 
equal length. Either chamfer or round the upper 
ends as desired. The mortises can be laid out and 
cut, or they can be left until the tenons are all made 
and then marked and cut directly from each tenon. 

The top and bottom boards should have the 
corners cut to clear the posts as shown in the draw- 
ing. The top board should be finished on both 
sides and the bottom one on the upper side only and 
be sure to get the best side up. 

Cut the tenons on the front boards back *4 in. 
from the face as shown in the end view. The boards 
should be finished on the outside sides and edges. 
The end pieces are fitted and finished in a similar 
manner except that the inside edge is rabbeted for 



CHINA CLOSET 



40 



the glass as shown. The side pieces are also rab- 
beted for the glass and the posts have grooves y 2 in. 
deep cut in them to hold these side pieces. They 
are glued in place and this can be done after the 
frame is put together. 







China Closet Complete 

The two shelves are finished on both sides and the 
front edges. The doors are fitted in the usual man- 
ner by a tenon and mortise joint at the ends. They 
are rabbeted on the inside for the glass and are 
finished on all sides. 



50 



LEATHER-COVERED FOOTSTOOL 



Before gluing any of the parts together, see that 
they all fit and go together perfectly square. The 
posts, side, and front pieces should be glued and 
assembled, then the top and bottom boards put in 
place to hold the frame square when the clamps are 
put on. Leave dry for about 24 hours, then scrape 
all the surplus glue from about the joints as the 
finish will not take when there is any glue. Fasten 
the top and bottom boards to the frame by means 
of screws through cleats as shown in the drawing. 
The backing is put on and finished on the front side. 
A mirror can be put in the back without much 
trouble, if it is desired. The shelves should be put 
in place and held at the back by screws through 
the backing and at the front by two small blocks on 
the posts as shown. 

After the closet is all assembled it should be thor- 
oughly gone over with fine sandpaper before any 
finish is applied. It can be finished in any one of 
the many mission stains which are supplied by the 
trade for this purpose. 



A LEATHER-COVERED FOOTSTOOL 

The illustration shows a very handy footstool in 
mission style. The following list of materials will 
be needed : 

4 oak posts, iy 2 by iy 2 by 12 in., S-4-S. 

2 sides, Va by 3 by 12 in., soft wood. 

2 ends, % by 3 by 8 in., soft wood. 

1 bottom, yk by S by 12 in., soft wood. 

1 small box of 8 oz. tacks 

2^2 doz. ornamental head nails. 

1 piece of dark leather, 16 by 20 in. 

y 2 lb. hair and a small portion of mission stain. 

The posts are the only parts made of quarter- 



LEATHER-COVERED FOOTSTOOL 



51 



sawed oak, the other parts, being covered with 
leather, can be made of any kind of soft wood. 
Chamfer the top end of each post, and taper the 
lower ends as shown in detail. When this is done 
the mortises can be cut for the sides as shown in the 
post detail. When cutting the mortises and tenons 
take care to make them fit perfectly, as there is 
nothing to brace the legs at the bottom. The strength 




Footstool Leather Covered 

of the stool depends upon the joints. Make the sur- 
face of the posts smooth by first using No. 1 sand- 
paper, then finishing with No. 00. 

The parts are now assembled. First clamp the 
ends together, using plenty of glue on the joints, 
and drive some small nails on the inside of the posts 
through the tenon ends. When the glue has set, the 
remaining sides can be put together the same as the 
ends. Fit the bottom on the inside about 1 in. from 
the top. This can be made fast by driving nails 



52 



MANTEL CLOCK 



through the sides and ends of the board. The finish- 
ing is done by putting on the mission stain as the di- 
rections state; on the can, then wax the surface to 
get a dull gloss. 

The leather is now put on. Notch out the corners 



? 



M=* 



is 

to 

.1 



Post detail 



Details of Footstool 

to fit around the posts, but do not cut the ends off. 
Lap them under the cover. Before nailing on the 
cover fix the hair evenly over the top, about G in. 
deep. Draw the leather over the hair and fasten the 
edges with the 8-oz. tacks. The ornamental nails 
are driven in last, as shown in the drawing, to make 
a good appearance. 



ARTS-CRAFTS MANTEL CLOCK 

The clock shown in the illustration was designed 
especially for rooms furnished in mission style. The 
clock, however, may be made of mahogany or other 
wood to match the furniture in any room where it is 
to be placed. If the mission effect is desired, an oxi- 
dized or copper sash should be used. Movements 
can be bought at the salesroom of a clock company. 
A movement should be selected that is wide enough 



MANTEL CLOCK 



53 



from the front to the back to allow the clock case to 
be made sufficiently deep for standing without being 
easily upset. 

Quarter-sawed white oak is the best material for 
this clock, but any other wood which works easily 
and takes a stain well may be used. Two pieces, 
% in. thick, 6% in. wide, and 8Y> in. long, will be 
needed for the front and back. One piece, 5 in. wide, 




Mantel Clock with Wood and Copper Front 

6 in. long, and with a thickness sufficient for the 
clock movement, is needed for the middle part. The 
thickness of this piece depends on the movement 
secured. 

After the front and back pieces are finished, and 
a piece of hammered copper screwed on the front 
as shown in the drawing, the middle piece must be 
made just thick enough to make the whole distance 
from the front of the copper to the back of the clock 
equal to the depth of the movement. Plane one edge 
on both front and back pieces. Lay out the design 
and the centers for the circular holes from this 



54 



MANTEL CLOCK 



planed edge. Use a plane and chisel to cut the out- 
side design. The hole can be bored out with an ex- 
pansive bit, or sawed out with a scroll saw, and filed 
perfectly round with a half-round wood file. The 
bit will give the best results. If the bit is used, bore 
holes in a piece of scrap wood until the exact size is 
found. 

The outside design of the piece of copper is made 
to correspond to the design of the clock. The cir- 
cular hole in the copper can be cut with the expan- 




Details of Mantel Clock 

sive bit by first punching a hole in the center to re- 
ceive the spur of the bit, placing on a block of wood 
and boring through a little way. The spur on the 
cutter will cut out the copper. Fasten the copper 
to the front with copper nails or round-headed 
screws. 

If good glue can be had, the three pieces of wood 
may be glued together. If the glue cannot be re- 
lied upon, put in two flat-headed screws from the 
back. 

The clock can be finished with a dark stain and 
waxed, or, as it is small, it can be easily fumed. If 
stain is used, stain and wax the pieces before put- 



MUSIC STAND 



55 



ting them together. The fuming process is more 
easily done after the clock is assembled. Secure a 
bucket, a peck measure, or any receptacle large 
enough, when inverted, to put over the clock." Pour 
about 2 oz. of strong ammonia into a saucer or small 
pan. Support the clock above the saucer and cover 
both with the inverted bucket. Allow it to stand for 
three or four days — the longer it stands the darker 
the fumed finish will be. Finish with two coats of 
bleached wax. Do not use ordinary uncolored wax, 
as it will show in the unfilled pores of the wood. The 
works of the clock should not be in the frame while 
fuming. 



A MUSIC STAND 

The attractive and useful piece of mission furniture 
shown in the accompanying illustration is made of 
quarter-sawed oak. Considerable labor can be saved 
in its construction if the stock is ordered from the mill 
ready cut to length, squared and sanded. The stock 
list consists of the following pieces : 

1 top, H by 16 by 20 in., S-2-S. 
1 shelf, V 4 by liy 2 by 15 in., S-2-S. 
1 shelf, H by 12 by 15 in., S-2-S. 
1 shelf, V 4 by 14^ by 15 in., S-2-S. 

1 shelf, H by 16 by 15 in., S-l-S. 
4 legs, H by 5 by 41 in., S-2-S. 

2 lower crosspieces, H by 3 by 9 in., S-2-S. 
2 upper crosspieces, 24 by 2 by 9 in., S-2-S. 
4 end slats, H by 2 by 34 in., S-2-S. 

20 R.H. screws, 2 in. long. 

The four shelves and the top are so wide that it will 
be necessary to make them from two or more pieces 
glued together. The top should have a ^-in. bevel 
cut around the upper edge as shown in the drawing. 

The curve of the legs can be cut with a bracket saw 




Details of Music Stand 



or a drawknife, care being taken to get the edges 
square and smooth. The four crosspieces are fastened 
to the legs by means of tenons and mortises. The end 
slats are joined to the crosspieces in the same manner 
The legs can be assembled in pairs with the slats and 
crosspieces in place. They can be glued in this posi- 
tion, and when dry they should be carefully gone 



MUSIC STAND 






57 




Music Stand Complete 



58 



HOLDING SCREWS IN WOOD 



over with fine sandpaper to remove all rough spots. 
The shelves can now be put in place. They should 
be fastened to the legs with round-headed screws. 
The top is also fastened on with screws. When ap- 
plying the finish, remove the top board and the 
shelves and finish them separately. The stand can 
be finished in any one of the many mission stains 
supplied by the trade for this purpose. 

This handsome piece of furniture can be used as a 
magazine stand as well as a music stand, if desired, 
and, if it is made and finished well, it will prove an 
ornament to any home. 



MAKING SCREWS HOLD IN THE END 
GRAIN OF WOOD 

It is often necessary to fasten one piece of wood 
to the end of another by means of screws. Wood 
being a fibrous material, it can be readily under- 
stood that when a screw having sharp threads is 

put in the end 
grain parallel to 
these fibers the 
threads cut them 
in such a way that, 
when an extra 
strain is put upon 
the part s, the 
screw pulls out, 
bringing with it the severed fibers. The accompany- 
ing sketch shows how this difficulty may be over- 
come, and at the same time make the screw hold 
firmly. A hole is bored and a dowel, preferably 




Dowel 



Cross piece 



WALL CASE 



59 



of hardwood, glued in it, the grain at right angles 
to that of the piece. 

The size of the dowel, and its location, can be 
determined by the diameter and the length of the 
screw. The dowel need not extend all the way 
through the piece, but should be put in from the 
surface where the grain of the dowel will be least 
objectionable. 

When putting screws in hard wood much labor 
will be saved by applying soap to the threads. 



A WALL CASE WITH A MIRROR DOOR 

The wall case shown in the accompanying picture 
will serve well as a medicine case. Having a paneled 
door in which is set a mirror, it serves equally well as 
a shaving case. It is best made of some hard wood, 
though a soft wood such as pine or yellow poplar will 
work up easier and look well finished with three or 
four coats of white enamel paint. 

There will be needed the following pieces : 

2 sides, X by 6 by 32^ in S-4-S. 
1 top and 1 bottom, ¥& by 6 by 18 in., S-4-b. 
1 top of back, y 2 by 4 by 16 % in., S-2-S. 
1 bottom of back, */ 2 by 3 by 16 Va W., S-4-S. 
1 shelf, H by 5 by 16 in., S-4-S. 

1 back, % by 16 by 21 in., S-2-S. 

DOOR 

2 stiles, H by 3 by 20 J4 in., S-4-S. 
1 top rail, V% by 2 by 11 in., S-4-S. 

1 bottom rail, H by 4 by 11 in., S-4-S. 

1 backing for door, ft by 10 by 15 in., b-^-S. 

First shape the ends of the two side pieces as shown 
in the drawing. Next square the top and bottom 
pieces of the case to size, and lay out and cut the ten- 
ons on the ends. Lay out and cut the mortises in the 



60 



WALL CASE 



side pieces, also the groove for the shelf, having first 
squared the shelf to size. Cut and shape the top and 
bottom pieces of the back as shown. Cut the rebates 
in the side pieces into which these pieces are to rest 
their ends. Cut the rebate for the back. Thoroughly 
scrape and sandpaper these parts and assemble them. 
Cut and fit the back in place. 




Wall Case Details 

The door is to be made next. Plan the different 
parts of the door so that the edges may be planed to 
fit the opening; that is, make the door a good quarter 
larger at top and bottom than the opening. In cutting 
the rebate the easiest way is to use a rabbeting plane 
and cut the full length of the pieces. By using a tenon 



WALL CASE 



(il 



on the rails in which one shoulder is as much longer 
than the other as the rebate is deep there is no result- 
ing groove showing at the corner. 




Case with Mirror Door 



The wood should be finished before the glass is set, 
at least, it should be filled, if of hard wood, and one 
coat of paint put on, if of soft wood which is to be 
enameled. 



L 



62 



SIDE CHAIR 



In setting the glass, place a thin cushion of putty 
between the rebate and the glass and another thin 
cushion between the glass and the fillet of wood or the 
backing which is to protect the back of the glass. 

Fit the door, and then put on the hinges and lock. 
If desired, the tenons may be made keyed as shown 
in the photograph instead of through as shown in the 
drawing. 

To finish the case, if of oak, apply a coat of light 
paste filler, the directions being on the filler can. Next 
put on a coat of white shellac. When this has hard- 
ened apply two coats of some good varnish. Allow 
time for each coat to harden and rub the first coats 
with haircloth or curled hair, and the last with pul- 
verized pumice and raw linseed oil or crude oil. 

If the wood is soft and an enamel white is desired, 
the enamel is applied not unlike paint. The directions 
will be found on the cans in which the paint is 
purchased. 



A SIDE CHAIR 

A side chair of simple design and construction is 
here given. The great difficulty with most chair de- 
signs is that the back is generally designed narrower 
than the front, thus necessitating the rails entering 
the posts or legs at angles. To the amateur this is 
quite confusing. The chair illustrated is the same 
in width, both back and front, so that the shoulders 
of all the rails are at right angles to the sides. The 
back of the chair is straight, thus simplifying the 
design still more. 



SIDE CHAIR 



63 



Another thing which is confusing to the beginner 
in his efforts to lay out the mortises is the irregular 
placing of the rails. It will be noted that in this 




Side Chair Complete 

design the rails of side, front and back are on the 
same level. 

Plain sawed red oak will be appropriate for this 
piece. Have the pieces mill-planed and sandpapered 



64 



SIDE CHAIR 



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Details of Side Chair 



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in. extra to the 



on four sides to size, allowing 
lengths for squaring up the ends. 
There will be needed the following : 

4 rails, % by 2 by 17 J^ in. 

4 rails, ^ by 2 by 17*^ in. 

2 front posts, l l / 2 by 1% by 19 in. 

2 rear posts, 1U by lj^ by Zl x / 2 in. 

1 back, ^ by 9% by 17# in. 

2 cleats, ^ by 1 by 16 in. 
4 slats, # by 2 by 16^ in. 

Begin work by cutting the posts to the lengths in- 
dicated in the drawing. The lower ends should be 
chamfered slightly to prevent their splintering from 
usage. The top ends are cut to an angle of 45 deg., 
the slope beginning V2 in. below the top. Lay out 
and cut the mortises. To do this, lay off the meas- 
urements on one of the posts, then place all four 
side by side on the bench, with the face marks up. 



1 



SIDE CHAIR 



65 



Even the ends with the try-square and then carry 
the measurements just made across all of them, using 
the try-square. The rails ought to be shouldered on 
all four sides. Three-eighths inch is a good thick- 
ness for the tenons. The width may be l a /4 in. and 
the length 1 in. 

Place the rails side by side on the bench with 
the joint-edges up and the ends evened. Measure 
off the desired length on one of them and carry the 
lines across all of them to indicate the location of 
the shoulder lines. Separate the pieces and square 
these lines entirely around all of the sides of each 
piece. With the tenon saw rip and cross cut to these 
lines. 

The back, it will be noted, is set on a slant to add 
comfort. Thoroughly clean all the parts and as- 
semble them, using good hot glue. Put the back 
together first, then the front. After these have dried, 
put the side rails in place. 

Cut and fit the two cleats — one to the front rail 
and one to the rear rail. Keep them even with the 
lower edge of the rail so as to form a slight recess 
at the top when the slats are in place. This is to 
keep the cushion from sliding off. The slats need 
not be "let into" the cleats but merely fastened to 
their top edges. The cushion may be made of 
Spanish roan skin and should be filled with elastic 
felt. 

In the chair shown, the joints are reinforced by 
the addition of lag screws. If the glue is good and 
the joints well fitted, these are not necessary. 



AN ARM CHAIR 

The arm chair here described and illustrated is in- 
tended to be one of the set of diners made after the 
design of the side chair described on another page. 
The same general directions for making the side 
chair apply equally to the arm chair. 

The stock given in the following list should be 
purchased surfaced on four sides and well sand- 
papered : 

2 rear posts, l l / 2 by V/ 2 by 38 in. 

2 front posts, iy 2 by iy 2 by 2C» 1 / 2 in. 
9 rails, % by 2 by 19^ in. 

1 rail, % by iy 2 by 19 K in. 

3 slats, y 2 by 2 by V2y 2 in. 

2 arms, % by 4^ by 20 # in. 

2 brackets, % by 2 l / 4 by 2$4 in. 
2 cleats, H by 1 by 19 in. 

4 slats, M by 2 by 19 in. 

Prepare the posts first by cutting them to the 
lengths shown in the drawing. In the photograph 
the front posts have their tops cut off square and the 
arms fastened to them by means of lag screws. A 
better way from a mechanical point of view would 
be to shoulder the top ends on the four sides, cut 
through-mortises in the arms and insert these ten- 
oned posts into these mortises, pinning the arm to 
the post by means of small dowels in the edge of the 
post and through the tenon. 

The brackets under the arms are to be fastened to 
the posts and arms by means of concealed dowels 
and glue of good quality. 

All of the rails should be tenoned into the posts 
thoroughly, even if the lag screw fastenings are used. 
If the lag screws are used, the tenons may be what 
are known as stubb tenons — tenons of short length. 
Good hot glue should be used in either case. 



ARM CHAIR 



67 



The shape of the arms is indicated in the drawing. 
They are fastened to the rear posts by means of 
dowels and glue. 




Arm Chair Complete 

The slats, or verticals, of the back should not have 
their ends tenoned but should have the mortises in 
the rails cut sufficiently large to "let in" the whole 
end of each. This is much easier and more likely to 
result in a satisfactory fit than to shoulder them. 



68 



ARM CHAIR 



Any unevenness in the lengths of the respective slats 
will not affect the fitting of the joints by this latter 
method. 

The tops of the rear posts in this chair, as in the 
side chair, are cut to angles of 45 deg., beginning the 
slope at lines marked V2 in. from the tops. 

The bottom is made up of 2-in. slats fitted between 






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Details of Chair 



the front and back rails and fastened to cleats which 
have been previously fastened to the insides of the 
front and back rails. Keep these cleats low enough 
on the rails so that the top surfaces of the slats 
shall rest somewhat below the top edges of the rails. 
Cushions, such as the one shown, can be purchased 



ARM CHAIR 



ready made or they can be easily made by the 
amateur. 

A good finish for this chair and its mates is ob- 
tained as follows : Apply one coat of brown Flem- 
ish water stain. This stain in the original package is 
very dark in tone and unless an almost black finish is 
wanted, it should be lightened by the addition of 
one-half or two-thirds water. Apply with a brush 
or sponge and allow to dry over night. When dry, 
sandpaper lightly with fine or worn sandpaper to 
remove the raised grain caused by the water of the 
stain. Put on a very thin coat of shellac. This is 
to prevent the "high lights" in close-grained woods 
from being discolored by the stain in the filler which 
is to follow. The shellac being very thin does not 
fill the pores of the wood perceptibly. Next, sand 
the shellac coat lightly when it has hardened. Ap- 
ply a coat of paste filler colored considerably darker 
than the stain to the tone desired for the open grain. 
If the filler is well stirred and properly applied, one 
coat ought to be sufficient. If it does not fill the 
pores satisfactorily, apply another coat when the fir 
has had time to harden. Vandyke brown is used 
color the filler, if none but natural color is to 
had. On the hardened filler apply a thin coat of r 1 
lac. On this apply several coats of wax. Th» 
tions for waxing will be found upon the . 
which the wax comes. 



A BOOKCASE 

This beautiful piece of mission furniture can be 
made at a very moderate cost by anyone who has a 
slight knowledge of tools. Considerable labor can 
be saved by ordering the material from the mill ready 
cut to size, dressed and sanded. Quarter-sawed oak 
is the best wood to use and it is comparatively easy 
to obtain. Plain-sawed oak looks well, but is more 
liable to warp than the quarter-sawed and this is 
quite an element in pieces as wide as the ones used. 
For the complete bookcase the following material 
will be needed : 

1 top, H b y 15 by 31 ^4 i"-» bard wood, S-l-S. 

1 top back board, H by 4 by 3C>K in., bard wood, S-l-S. 

2 sides, M by 14 by 50 in., hard wood, S-l-S. 
1 bottom, H by 14 by 2SH in ,, hard wood, S-l-S. 
1 bottom rail, ^ by 4 by 28^4 in., hard wood, S-l-S. 

1 center piece, H by 2 by 45^ in., hard wood, S-2-S. 
4 door sides, V 4 by \y 2 by 4654 in., hard wood, S-2-S. 
4 door ends, j% by iy 2 by 14 in., hard wood, S-2-S. 
4 pieces door lattice, y 2 by y 2 by 12^ in., hard wood. 
4 pieces door lattice, */ 2 by y 2 by 7 in., hard wood. 

2 bottom cleats, V/ 4 by 1 J4 by 13 in., soft wood. 
• 2 top cleats, 1 by 1 by Viy 2 in., soft wood. 

3 shelves, y 2 by 12 by 28^4 in., soft wood. 

f pieces backing, H by 4 by 29^ in., soft wood, 
hinges, 
door handles. 

in with the sides by cutting them so they will 

L< all right. The front edges are rounded while 

edges are rabbeted on the inside as deep as 

^ to be used. The bottoms are cut as 

the front an ' sketch. Holes about % in deep should 

have been prev. a inside at the proper places for the 

front and back r; <* hold up the shelves. 

on the rails so ti ' tom boards should have the front 

shalf rest somewha. 1 sanded the same as the sides. 

Cushions, such as thi 



BOOKCASE 



71 




Completed Bookcase 



72 



BOOKCASE 



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Details of Bookcase 

The top board is sanded on one side only and care 
should be taken to get the best side up. 

Now cut and fit the top back board. This is fas- 
tened to the top by means of screws. Screw two 
cleats to each of the sides as shown and by running 
screws through these into the top and bottom boards 
the frame is completed. 



LAMP STAND 



73 



The backing which can be made of some cheap 
lumber is now put on. Next put in the center up- 
right piece between the doors by means of a tenon 
and mortise at the top and nail at the bottom. The 
front edge should be rounded and the edge and sides 
sanded. Cut and fit the bottom rail as shown. It is 
fastened to the frame by means of cleats on the back 
side. 

The doors are put together by means of a tenon 
and mortise. They should be rabbeted for the lattice 
work and the glass. This lattice work can be omit- 
ted and leaded glass put in its place which is very 
becoming to this kind of work. 

When the case is completed it must be carefully 
gone over with sandpaper before any finish is applied. 

A mission stain is suitable for work of this kind, 
but it can also be finished in "golden oak" which is 
done in the following manner : First put on a golden 
oak stain and after it has dried for about 2 hours, 
apply the filler. Let this dry about 10 minutes then 
rub of! with an old rag. Then go over the case again 
with some very fine sandpaper and after seeing that 
all parts are free from dust and dirt the varnish can 
be applied. Three coats of varnish will give a beau- 
tiful glossy finish. 



A LAMP STAND 



A mission table lamp stand for those who use 
electric lights is shown in the accompanying illus- 
tration. It is suitable for either the office or the home 
and is very simple in design and construction. The 
stock should be quarter-sawed oak and it can be 



74 



LAMP STAND 



ordered from the mill ready cut to length, squared 
and sanded. The following pieces will be needed: 

1 post, iy 2 in. sq. by 23 in. 

1 arm, V/£ by U by 13J4 m. 

1 block, ft in. thick by 6 in. square. 

1 block, 1 in. thick by 9 in. square. 

Square up the base blocks and fasten them to- 




Details of Lamp Stand 

gether with screws as shown in the detail sketch. A 
mortise, 1 in. square, is cut in the center of the blocks 
for the center post. Lead weights, covered with felt, 



LAMP STAND 



75 



should be attached to the bottom, as shown. The 
post has a tenon cut on one end to fit the base, and a 
mortise cut in the other for the arm. Holes are 
bored in the arm from the ends for the wires. They 
can be plugged after the wires are in place. A hole 




Electric Lamp Stand Complete 

is also bored in the top of the center post to connect 
with the holes in the arm for the lead wire. 

It is best to glue the joints together, although this 
is not necessary if the joints are a tight fit. Sand- 
paper the parts thoroughly, then stain to match 
the other furniture. 






ill 




AN EXTENSION DINING TABLE 

The accompanying sketch and photograph show a 
simple design of an extension dining table of the mis- 
sion style. It is very easy to construct and can be built 
at home by anyone who is at all handy with tools. It 
should be made of quarter-sawed oak, which can be 
secured at the mill ready cut to length, squared and 
sanded. Order the following pieces: 



2 top pieces, 1 by 23 by 46 in. 
2 extra leaves, 1 by 12 by 46 in. 
2 rails, ^ by 3 by 44 in. 
4 rails, H by 3 by 22 in. 
2 pieces for posts, % by 8 by 24 in. 
2 pieces for posts, }i by 6 by 24 in. 
4 pieces for feet, 3 by 3 by 14 in. 
4 pieces for feet, 3 by 3 by 5 in. 
4 pieces for feet, 1 by 4 by 4 in. 
4 pieces moulding, 1 by 1 by 10 in, 

1 piece, 1 by 12 by 27 in., birchwoc 

2 brackets, ^ by 3 by 32 in., birch 



± piece, i oy 12 oy ^.t in., mrcnwooa. 
2 brackets, U by 3 by 32 in., birchwood. 
2 pieces for slide, \y A by 3 by 36 in., birchwood. 
4 pieces for slide, 1 by 3 by 36 in., birchwood. 
12 pieces for slide, $% by l l / 2 by 36 in., birchwoc 



birchwood. 

The feet can be made first by squaring up one end 
of each and beveling the other as shown in the drawing. 
The short pieces are fastened to the long ones by 
means of long screws and glue. The four square 
pieces should be nailed to the outer ends and holes 
bored in them for the casters. Prepare the pieces for 
the posts, and before nailing them together fasten the 
feet to them with long screws. Be careful to get them 
on square, else the table will not set level when com- 
plete. Now nail and glue the pieces forming the table 
together and fasten the moulding at the bottom. This 
moulding should have mitered corners as shown in 
the bottom view. Also fasten the rest piece to the top 
of the post, using long screws and glue. 

The slides can be made next. The pieces are made 



CEDAR CHEST 



79 



and fastened together with screws as shown in the en- 
larged detail view. This slide, if made with care, is a 
good one. The center piece should be firmly fastened 
to the post rest with long screws. The screws that 
fasten into the top should be inserted from below 
through counter-bored holes as shown. 

Miter the rails at the corners and glue them to the 
top. Blocks can be used on the inside if desired, which 
will make a much stronger construction. Screw the 
two brackets to the top as shown. These help to 
support the table when it is extended. 

When complete the table should be carefully gone 
over with fine sandpaper, and all glue and rough spots 
removed. Apply stain of the desired color. This can 
be any one of the many mission stains supplied by the 
trade for this purpose. 



AN OAK-BOUND CEDAR CHEST 

This cedar chest for storing unused bedding or 
furs is not a difficult thing to make and when made, 
the hard oak binding takes the wear and protects 
the softer cedar so that the chest ought to serve sev- 
eral generations. Order the stock as follows: 

CEDAR 
2 top and bottom pieces, % by I6J/2 by 34J4 in., S-2-S. 
2 sides, % by \%Y% by 34^ in., S-2-S. 
2 ends, % by 18% by 14^ in., S-2-S. 

OAK 
2 overhanging top pieces, 1 by 1 by 36^ in., S-4-S. 
2 overhanging top pieces, 1 by 1 by 18^ in., S-4-S. 
2 lock and hinge rails. 1 by 2^ by my 2 in., S-2-S. 
2 lock and hinge rails, 1 by 2# by 18H in., S-2-S. 
2 base pieces, 1 by 3J4 by 36^ in., S-2-S. 
2 base pieces, 1 by 8% by 18^ in., S-2-S. 

Specify thoroughly seasoned Tennessee red cedar 



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CEDAR CHEST 



81 



and plain sawed white oak and have the different 
pieces millplaned and sandpapered as indicated in 
the stock-bill. This bill allows ^2 in. extra on the 
length and the width of each piece for "squaring- up" 
of all pieces except those marked to be surfaced on 
four sides. 

Begin by squaring the sides and ends to size. 
Probably the best joint for the corners is the dove- 
tail. If the worker is not experienced in woodwork- 
ing, some of the more simple joints will do. It will 
be noted that the drawing and stock-bill call for the 
simplest form of joint, that in which the sides of the 
chest lap over the end. For the dovetail joint it will 
be necessary to add 2 in. more to the length of the 
end pieces, making them 16% in. each in the rough. 

Having got the sides and ends ready, fasten them 
together. The perspective shows the sides fastened 
to the ends with ornamental headed nails. Com- 
mon nails are first used, being equally spaced, and 
the ornamental heads are afterwards placed so as 
to cover their heads. 

Next square the bottom and nail it to the parts 
just assembled. Square the top to the same size. 

The base stuff is squared on one edge only. The 
second edge — the upper one — is to be beveled or 
sloped Vs in. to facilitate dusting and for appearance 
sake. Fit these base pieces to place, mitering the 
joints. Before fastening the parts to the chest 
proper, gauge a line % in, from the lower edge and 
to a point 4 l / 2 in. from each end, cut out to this line 
and shape the base as shown in the drawing. Use 
finishing nails for fastening the base to the chest. 
The heads should be "set" so they may be covered 
later with a putty colored to match the finish. 



82 



CEDAR CHEST 



In a similar manner plane up, cut and fit the 
back and hinge rails. These rails should be kept 
a "scant" % in. below the top edges of the chest 
proper. The overhang of the lid fits down over in 
such a way as to form a dust-proof joint between 
lid and chest proper. 

The overhang of the lid of 1 in. by 1-in. stock 
may next be mitered, fitted and nailed to the lid. 
Thoroughly sandpaper all parts not so treated and 
finish as follows: Put on all the oak pieces, two 
coats of natural paste filler. This is best done be- 
fore they are fastened in place. Directions will be 
found on the cans in which the filler is kept. 

The red of the cedar may be heightened by ap- 
plying a mahogany stain made of Bismark brown 
aniline and boiling water, in the proportion of 3 qt. 
of water to 1 oz. of aniline. If applied hot the stain 
will enter the wood better. When dry, sandpaper 
lightly with No. 00 paper, both this and the oak- 
filled pieces. 

Fasten the oak pieces in place and give the whole 
exterior a very thin coat of shellac. After this 
has hardened, apply two coats of wax. Wax comes 
in paste form and is to be applied with a cloth 
very sparingly. Allow it to stand five or ten min- 
utes then rub briskly with a soft dry cloth to polish. 
The first coat is allowed to stand 24 hours before 
the second is applied in a similar manner. 

Another finish, known as an egg-shell gloss shel- 
lac finish, is obtained by omitting the wax and in- 
stead applying from two to five more coats of 
shellac. Allow each coat 24 hours in which to 
harden, and rub each hardened coat to a smooth 



CEDAR CHEST 



83 



finish, using curled hair, or fine steel wool, or fine 
oiled sandpaper, before applying the next. 

The metal reinforcements for the corners can be 
bought at a hardware store, as can the lock, hinges, 




Cedar Cheat Complete 

and handles. These parts are applied in the usual 
manner — butt hinges being used. 

If well made, the chest is practically airtight. 
The interior is all of red cedar, while the effect of 
the exterior in combining the light oak and the 
red cedar is striking. 



he a. 
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be % b 
ould be r 



_ 



A TOOL FOR MAKING MORTISES 



In the construction of mission furniture where 
mortise joints are mostly used, those who cannot 
have access to a mortising machine will find the 
following method of great assistance in obtaining a 
true mortise, which is necessary in work of this 
kind. 




Boring Holes for Tenons 

Take a block of wood, A, the exact thickness of 
the piece B to be mortised, and with an auger bore 
a hole, the same size as the width of the mortise 
to be made, exactly parallel to the sides of the 
block. This can best be done on a drill press or a 
wood boring machine. If no machine is available, 
great care should be taken in boring by hand, to get 
the hole as nearly true as possible. Then nail a 
cleat, C, on the side of the block, A, and let it ex- 
tend down c pi ce B. Use a clamp to hold the 
block in place wl ile boring out the mortise. By 
changing Jbjfc;^ : on of the block and boring a 
number oi^.^ieC t length of mortise can be made. 
The holes shr**V« awards be squared up with a 



A DRESSER FOR CHILD'S PLAYROOM 

This dresser can be made of two kinds of wood as 
marked on the drawing or it can be made all of one 
kind. The original dresser was made of oak and wal- 
nut and was finished natural, the contrast between the 
light and dark woods adding much to the value of the 
piece in the eyes of the little ones. Have all surfaces 
that will show well sandpapered at the mill. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the material wanted : 

4 oak posts, iy 2 in. square by 19 l / 2 in., S-4-S. 

3 walnut drawer fronts, fy by 5 by 17 in., S-2-S. 

6 yellow poplar drawer sides, ^ by 5 by 12 in., S-2-S. 

3 yellow poplar backs, M by 4^ by 16^ in., S-2-S. 

3 yellow poplar bottoms, $& by 12 by 16^ in., S-2-S. 

4 oak front stretchers, % by lY^ by ll l / 2 in., S-4-S. 
4 oak side rails, % by 2 by 12 in., S-4-S. 

2 walnut side panels, Ya by 11 by 14 J^ in., S-2-S. 
8 oak drawer slides, 7/s by 2 by 10y 2 in., S-2-S. 

6 oak drawer guides, ]/ 2 by $i by 10J4 in., S-2-S. 
4 oak back stretchers, % by 2 by 17 l / 2 in., S-2-S. 
1 oak top, H by 14 by 20y 2 in., S-2-S. 

3 sq. ft. of fi in. matched yellow pine ceiling for back. 

MIRROR SUPPORT 
1 walnut piece, % by lf£ by '2.{) l / 2 in., S-2-S. 
1 walnut piece, 7/ & by lja by 18 in., S-2-S. 

1 oak piece, $4 by 1% by 10/2 in., S-2-S. 

2 oak pieces, % by V/ 2 by 11 in., S-2-S. 

1 walnut bracket piece, % by 1% by 5 in., S-2-S. 

MIRROR FRAME PARTS 

2 walnut pieces, % by V/ 2 by 12^ in., S-2-S. 
2 walnut pieces, % by V/ 2 by 10^ in., S-2-S. 
2 oak pieces, *4 by % by 10 in., S-4-S. 

2 oak pieces, J4 by ^ by 8 in., S-4-S. 

1 back, fg by 8 by 10 in,, soft wood. 

2 cleats, H by 1 J A by 8 in. 

1 plain mifror glass, 7 l / 2 by 9^ in. 

Begin by planing the four posts to length. The 
lower ends should be slightly beveled to prevent their 
slivering. Cut the mortises for the tenons that are 
on the ends of the side rails. These rails are to be % 
by 2 in. and the tenons should be % by 1% in. wide 
by % in. long. The posts should be rabbeted down 





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DRESSER FOR PLAYROOM 



87 



to their middles to a depth of % in. so as to receive 
the %-in. end panels. The end rails should be cut to 




Dresser Complete 



length and their tenons worked after one edge of each 
has been rabbeted as were the posts. 



88 



DRESSER FOR PLAYROOM 



Having squared the panels to size, put the two ends 
of the dresser together with glue. Next make the four 
frames which are to carry the drawers. They should 
measure from outside to outside, in length l? 1 /^ in. ; 
in width, 12% in. It is intended that the short pieces 
shall be tenoned into the long ones. When these 
frames are ready, cut out each corner as indicated 
in the cross section drawing. Reduce to size the 
drawer guides and fasten them in place. Dowel the 
frames to the ends of the dresser in the places indi- 
cated on the drawing. Put on the back, nailing into 
frames to the ends of the dresser in the places indi- 
and fasten the top in place, putting screws into it from 
the under side. 

The mirror frame and support should next be made. 
The drawing shows quite clearly the parts and their 
relation to each other. All the slopes are of 45 deg. 
Instead of rabbeting the mirror frame, a x /4 by %-in. 
fillet of oak is nailed around to form the recess, the 
walnut frame and oak fillet making a pretty contrast. 
All nail holes are to be filled with putty colored to 
match the finish. Wooden pins or round-head 
screws are to be used to fasten the mirror frame to 
its support and should be placed above center an 
inch or so. 

The drawers are to be constructed in the usual man- 
ner. It is a good plan to make the grooves 1/16 in. 
narrower than the stock is thick to insure a fit, cham- 
fering the under or back sides of the bottom and back 
if necessary. Make the sides of the drawers of such 
a length that when the drawer has been pushed in as 
far as it will go, the front will be recessed about % in. 
behind the front crosspieces. Groove the inside of the 
drawer front T 3 ^ in. to receive the bottom. The mir- 



DRESSER FOR PLAYROOM 



89 



ror should not be placed until the wood has been 
finished. 

Finish the wood natural, apply three coats of var- 
nish. Rub the first two with haircloth or curled hair 
and the last with pulverized pumice stone and crude 
oil or raw linseed oil. This gives an egg-shell gloss. 



„ ,,'/ wl ," /5by2 Matched ceiling 

Post igBYig) f * . 



Xnd panel 
J £BYtl 




Drawer construction 



For a dull finish, rub the varnish after it has become 
bone dry with pulverized pumice stone and water, 
using a piece of rubbing felt. Rub until the surface 
is smooth and even, and clean with a wet sponge or 
chamois skin. If a polished finish is desired, rub first 
with pulverized pumice stone and water, then with 
rotten stone and water. Finish with a mixture of oil 
and a little pulverized rotten stone. 



CUTTING TENONS WITH A HAND-SAW 

This home-made tool will be a great help in the 
construction of mission furniture. With its use, 
tenons may be entirely cut with a saw, discarding 
the use of a chisel and mallet. The device consists 
of a convenient length of straight board, A, Fig. 
1, wide enough to cover the widest piece to be 
tenoned. A piece of board, B, is fastened to A with 
brads or small screws. This board should have a 



a-h 



F.o. i 




Sawing Tenons 

thickness equal to the piece to be cut from the side 
of the tenon. The piece C is fastened to A and B 
with small cleats at their upper ends. The space 
between B and C should be wide enough for the 
blade of a saw to run through easily, and also long 
enough to take in the widest part of the saw blade. 
The tool and piece to be tenoned are placed in a 
vise as shown in Fig. 2. The width of the piece re- 
moved for the tenon may be varied by putting in 
pieces of cardboard between the work, E, and the 
piece A, Fig. 1. 



ARTS AND CRAFTS OIL LAMP 

Electricity and gas are not always accessible in 
suburban or country homes and the regular type of a 
mission lamp would be of little use. The illustration 



Br Jm Is 

Kta^M,* ^.ui Lilt, r.. 

■ l 

1 r * 


li 


tl 



Artistic Mission Style Oil Lamp 

shows an ordinary round wick kerosene lamp fitted 
out in mission style. 

A few modifications were made in the design of an 
expensive lamp to simplify the construction. The 
lamp should have a tall chimney. The dimensions 
given in the drawings, and the photograph, will ex- 



OIL LAMP 



93 



plain themselves. Many of the details can be worked 
up by the maker. 

The body of the lamp is made of x /o-in oak and is 
provided with openings as shown. The interior re- 
ceptacle is very handy for holding a match box, smok- 
ing articles, etc. 

A piece of copper band, 1 in. wide, is fastened to 
the body with large upholsterers' tacks, to give it a 
finished appearance. The base is % in. thick and in 
order to prevent tilting is provided with four square 
feet, 14 in - thick. The top piece of the body is V^-in. 
oak, which is provided with a hole large enough to 
receive the bowl of the lamp. If such a lamp is not 
at hand, one can be purchased at a very reasonable 
price. 

The shade is made of oak frames set in with clouded 
art glass panels. The different sections of the frames 
are fastened together with brass screws and the glass 
is held in place by triangular cleats of oak. Be sure 
and fit the shade with cardboard panels before order- 
ing the glass. The cardboard can be used as a pattern 
in cutting the glass, and the glass will then fit without 
recutting, which is quite difficult. 

The glass beaded fringe should be of suitable color 
to harmonize with the finished lamp. 

The shade is supported by four brackets cast in 
bronze from a wood pattern (dimensions given) and 
finished by filing, buffing and lacquering. 



ANOTHER CHINA CLOSET 

The china closet shown in the accompanying 
illustration is well proportioned and of pleasing 
appearance. It can be made of any one of the 
several furniture woods in common use, but quarter- 
sawed oak will be found to give the most pleasing 
effect. The stock should be ordered from the mill 
ready sawed to length, squared and sanded. In this 
way much hard labor will be saved. The following 
pieces will be needed: 

1 top, 1 by 19 by 38 in., S-l-S. 

4 posts, % by 3 by 59 in., S-2-S. 

4 side rails, % by 3 by 31 in S-l-S. 

4 end uprights, 1 by 2 by 48 x / 2 m., S-2-S. 

4 end rails, 1 by 3 by 16 in., S-2-S. 

2 lattice rails, 1 by 2 by 18 in., S-2-S. 
1 top board, % by 3 by 3b m., S-l-S. 

4 side door rails, % by 2 by 47 in S-2-S. 

6 cross rails, % by 2 by 12 in., S-2-S. 

4 slats, % by % by lg% in., S-2-S. 

4 slats, y 2 by % by 13 M> in., S-2-S. 

8 slats, V 2 by % by 12% m., S-2-S. 

4 shelves, % by 16 by 32 in., S-l-S., poplar. 

4 cleats, 1 in. sq. by 55 in., soft wood 

4 cleats, 1 in. sq. by 28 in., soft wood. 

4 cleats, 1 in. sq. by 14 in., soft wood. 

Having this material on hand, start with the four 
posts, as they are all alike. Clamp them together 
being careful to have them of the right length, and 
the ends square. Trim the bottom, as shown in the 
detail drawing, and then lay out the mortises for 
the front and back rails. These rails can now be 
laid out and the tenons cut to fit the mortises in the 
posts. The back rails should, in addition, be rab- 
beted for the back board as shown. The end rails 
are fastened to the posts by means of screws through 
1-in square cleats, fastened on the inside of the posts 
as shown in the section A-A. In all cases the screws 



CHINA CLOSET 



95 




China Closet with Latticework Doors and Sides 



CHINA CLOSET 



97 



should be run through the cleats into the framing 
so the heads will not show. The end rails should 
be rabbeted on the inside for the latticework and the 
glass. 

The back board should have the corners rounded 
as shown and be fastened to the top board with 
screws through from the bottom side. The top 
board is then fastened to the top rail cleats in the 
same manner. 

The doors are put together by means of tenons 
and mortises. The frames should be rabbeted on 
the inside for the latticework and the glass. Leaded 
glass can be used in place of this latticework, if it is 
desired. Suitable hinges and a catch should be sup- 
plied. These can be purchased at any hardware 
store. 

The shelves should be cut out at the corners to fit 
around the cleats. They rest on small blocks which 
are fastened to the cleats, or if desired, small holes 
can be drilled and pins used instead. 

The back is put on in the usual manner. ^ A mirror 
can be put in without much trouble if it is desired. 

When putting the frame together, glue should be 
used on the joints, as it makes them much stiffer. 
Be careful to get the frame together perfectly 
square, or it will be hard to fit the doors and the 
glass. When it is complete, go over the whole care- 
fully with fine sandpaper and remove all rough spots. 
Scrape all the surplus glue from about the joints, as 
stain will not take when there is any glue. The 
closet can be finished in any one of the many mis- 
sion stains supplied by the trade for this purpose. 



AN OAK BEDSTEAD 

The accompanying sketches show an artistic de- 
sign for a mission bed, so simple in construction and 
design that most any one that has a few tools and 
a knowledge of their use can make it. It is best 
made of quarter-sawed oak, as this wood is the 
easiest to procure and work up and looks well with 
any finish. If the stock is ordered from the mill 
ready cut to length, squared and sanded, much of 
the hard labor will be saved. 

The following is a list of the material needed : 

2 posts, 2 y 2 by 2*4 by 50 in. 
2 posts, 2y 2 by 2y 2 by 44 in. 
2 end rails, 1 by 6 by 56 in. 

2 side rails, 1 by 6 by 78 in. 
5 end rails, 1 by 4 by 56 in. 

3 end rails, 1 by 2 by 56 in. 

8 vertical slats, ^ by 6 by 11 y 3 in. 
10 vertical slats, ^ by 2 by 11J4 in. 

2 cleats, 1 by 1 bv 78 in. 

5 slats, H by 3 by 55J4 in. 
20 blocks, 1 by 1 by 3 in. 

Square up the four posts in pairs and lay out the 
mortises as per drawing. To do this, lay them side 
by side on a flat surface with the ends square and 
mark them with a try-square. The tenons on the 
end rails are laid out in the same manner as the 
posts. Four of the end rails should be marked and 
mortises cut for the upright slats as shown in the 
detail drawing. The tenons on the end rails are 
about 1 in. long, while those on the slats can be % in. 
long. Fit all the parts together before gluing to 
see that they fit square and tight. After the glue 
has been applied clamp them together perfectly 
square and set them away to dry. They should dry 
at least twenty-four hours before the" clamps are 
removed. 



OAK FOOTSTOOL 



101 



While the ends are drying, the side rails can be 
made. These have a 1-in. square cleat screwed to 
the inner side for the slats to rest upon. If springs 
are used, five slats will be sufficient. They can be 
placed where the springs will rest upon them. After 
the position of the slats has been located, nail small 
blocks at their sides to hold them in place. For fas- 
tening the side rails to the posts, patent devices can 
be purchased at a local hardware store. The posts 
will have to be mortised to receive these, and care 
should be exercised to get them in the right place. 

When the bed is complete go over it carefully and 
scrapeall the surplus glue from about the joints, as 
the finish will not take where there is any glue. Re- 
move all rough spots with fine sandpaper; then ap- 
ply the stain you like best, which may be any 01 the 
many mission stains supplied by the trade for this 
purpose. If this bed is well made and finished, it 
will be an ornament to anv home. 



AN OAK FOOTSTOOL 

The footstool shown in the illustration can be made 
from any kind of wood, but when it is intended to be 
finished in mission style, quarter-sawed oak will pro- 
duce the best effect. The material needed will be as 

follows : 

1 top, 1 by Qy 2 by 12 in., S-l-S. 

2 legs, H by 8 by 12 in., S-2-S. 
1 brace, ^ by 7 by 9 in., S-l-S. 

Order these pieces cut to length, squared and sanded. 
A full-sized layout of the front view should be made 
to get the correct bevels for the legs and brace. The 
design of the legs can be varied to suit the fancy of 



102 



OAK FOOTSTOOL 



the maker. For such a design as shown draw one-half 
of it on paper; fold on the center line and with scis- 
sors cut both sides of the outline by following the lines 




Details of Footstool 



drawn. Trace around this pattern on the wood, and 
saw out with a compass or keyhole saw. The sawed 
edges should be smoothed and sandpapered. 



OAK FOOTSTOOL 



103 



The perforation in the top board is made by first 
boring holes, then trimming out the edges with a sharp 
chisel Be sure to get the best side of the board up. 

The legs are fastened to the top and to the braces 
with 1%-in. wood screws as shown in the detail draw- 




Footstool Complete 

ing. After the stool is assembled, go over it carefully 
with fine sandpaper and remove all rough spots before 
applying the finish. This finish can be any one of the 
many different kinds supplied by the trade for this 
purpose. If this stool is well made and finished, it will 
be a useful and attractive article. 



A LIBRARY SET IN PYRO-CARVING 

The multitude of indifferently executed small 
articles which followed the introduction of pyrography 
is beginning to disappear, people are considering the 
art more seriously and applying it to more" dignified 
uses. Pyro-carving is one of the new methods of 
decorating furniture which is both beautiful and 
practical, two qualities which do not always go 
together. 

The library set illustrated consists of a table, 30 by 
50 in., with two benches, 14 in. wide of the same length. 
The supports are made of selected white pine, which 
must be absolutely free from pitch. The pine is soft 
enough to work easily with the point and stands wear 
much better than basswood. The tops and braces are 
made of curly fir, all of the material must be 2-in. 
lumber, which dresses to about an inch and a half. All 
surfaces, except the faces of the supports, are given a 
well-rubbed coat of oil with a little burnt umber, the 
stain to be applied directly to the wood without a 
filler. 

On the outside of the supports the design is drawn 
in with pencil, the background is then cut out smoothly 
with a chisel to the depth of an eighth of an inch, 
leaving the decoration in relief. It is then burned 
deeply, the background in straight flat strokes, the out- 
lines having the effect of a sloping, dark edge. The 
shadows are burned in as deeply as possible and the 
shading is put in with the flat of the point. 

A wax or egg-shell oil varnish finish is most suit- 
able for this set. 






A GRILLE WITH PEDESTALS TO MATCH 

The accompanying sketch shows something unique 
in a grille that adds to the appearance of a home 
furnished in mission style. When it is stained and 
finished to match the furniture, it gives a consummate 
tone that would be difficult to obtain by any other 
means. 

To get the best results it should be made to blend 
with the furniture and the arch in which it is to fit, in 
both weight and style. This will depend very much 
upon one's preference, and for this reason full dimen- 
sions are not given. No difficulty will be experienced, 
however, by anyone handy with tools, in making it. 

The material should be quarter-sawed oak, which 
can be secured planed and sanded at the mill. For 
the grille order 1 by 1%-in. and Y 2 by 1%-in. stock. 
The method of making the bars is shown in the de- 
tailed sketch. The two end bars should be made of 
solid pieces, % by l x /2 in., with two rectangular slots 
mortised in each to receive the supports. The sup- 
ports should be just the right length to go in the arch. 
To erect, slip the end bars on the supports, hold the 
grille in place and fasten the bars to the sides of the 
arch with screws. 

The size of the pedestals and the connecting pieces 
will depend upon the size of the arch. These con- 
necting pieces should be well mortised into the post, 
and if you own your own home and intend the pedestals 
to become a fixture, they should also be mortised into 
the sides of the arch. If not, they may be fastened 
to the arch with blind screws. The amount of material 
required will depend upon the size of the arch. 



A LADY'S WRITING DESK 



This desk of mission style is a little more com- 
plicated than some of the other pieces of mission 
furniture that have been described, but anyone who 
has a fair knowledge of tools will not have much 
trouble in constructing it in the home workshop if 
the plans are carefully followed. Quarter-sawed 
oak is the best wood to use, as it is easy to work and 
looks best when finished. Order the stock from the 
mill ready cut to length, squared and sanded. Fol- 
lowing is a list of the stock needed : 

2 front posts, 2 by 2 by 30 in. 
2 back posts, 2 by 2 by 50 in. 

1 bottom rail, Y A by 3 by 31 in. 

2 end rails, ^ by 3 by 18 in. 

1 stretcher, ^ by 8 by 33 J4 in. 

2 end slats, H by 8 by 15 in. 

1 back slat, ^ by 8 by 15 J4 in. 

2 back slats, ^ by 3 by 15^ in. 

1 front drawer rail, $4 by 1% by 3134 in. 

2 side drawer rails, $4 by 3 by 18*4 in. 
1 drawer front, 34 by by 30 in. 

1 desk lid, U bv 18 by 3154 in. 

1 desk board, Y A by 19 # by 31 % in. 

2 end boards, M by 19 by 21^ in. 
1 top board, V 4 by 10 by 34 in. 

1 top back hoard, 24 by 5 by 31 H in. 

1 back board, # by 30 by 22 in. 

2 drawer sides, ^ by 6 by 19% in., S. W. 
1 drawer end, l / 2 by 6 by 29 in., S. W. 

1 drawer bottom, y 2 by 18 by 29 in., S. W. 

2 pieces for pigeon holes, H by 7 by 23 in., S. W. 
8 pieces for pigeon holes, H by 4 by 6^4 in., S. W. 

Start with the back posts, being sure they are 
square and of the right length ; place them side by 
side and lay out the mortises for the lower rails, the 
desk rails and the top back boards, as shown in the 
accompanying detail drawing. Lay out the front 
posts in the same manner. Cut the tenons on the 
ends of the rails to fit the mortises in the posts. 



LADY'S WRITING DESK 



109 



Also cut mortises in the rails for the back and end 
slats. The end rails have a mortise in them for 
the tenons on the ends of the foot boards. Clamp 
the ends of the desk together, with the end rails in 
place; then fit the side boards. Bore holes through 



A-, 



Section B-B 



A— 




Section 



^B 



Details of Writing Desk 



the posts into the side boards for dowels as shown. 
After the dowels are in place the holes can be 
plugged. 

Cut and fit the top back board, the bottom rail, 
the back board and the stretcher. Cut the top and 
desk boards at the back corners to clear the posts. 



110 



LADY'S WRITING DESK 



The top board is to be fastened to the side boards 
with blind screws. The back board is fastened to 
the posts with dowels as shown. 

When all the parts fit square and tight they can 




Desk Complete 



be glued together. The ends of the desk should be 
glued up first and left to dry, then the other parts 
put in place and glued. When clamping the parts 
together see that they fit perfectly square and tight. 



LADY'S WRITING DESK 



111 



While the glue is drying the drawer can be made. 
The front board is made of oak, but the other parts 
may be made of some soft wood. The side pieces 
are mortised and glued to the front board. The end 
and bottom boards can be nailed together. 

The drop lid of the desk is made as shown. Two 
or more boards may have to be glued together for 
the lid, the desk bottom and the back board. The 
lid is fastened to the desk board with two hinges, 
and it should be so arranged that when closed it will 
be even with the sides. Brackets or chains are 
fastened to the inside to hold it in the proper posi- 
tion when it is open. Small blocks of wood fastened 
to the inner edge of the side boards will prevent it 
from closing too far. A lock, if desired, can be 
purchased at a hardware store and fitted in place. 
Suitable handles for the drawer should also be pro- 
vided. 

When the desk is complete go over it with fine 
sandpaper and remove all rough spots. Scrape all 
glue from about the joints, as the finish will not take 
where there is any glue. 

The pigeonholes are made from %-in. stock. 
They may be tacked in place after the desk is fin- 
ished. 

The finish can be any one of the many mission 
stains supplied by the trade for this purpose. If 
the desk is well made and finished, it will have a 
very neat and attractive appearance. 



A TELEPHONE STAND AND STOOL 

The stand shown in the accompanying illustration 
is for use with a desk telephone. The stool when 
not in use, slides on two runners under the stand. 




Stand and Stool Complete 

A shelf is provided for the telephone directory pa- 
per, pencil, etc. " ' 
< The joints may be made with dowels, or the mor- 
tiseand tenon may be used, as desired. If the lat- 
ter is decided upon, allowance must be made on the 



TELEPHONE STAND AND STOOL 



113 



length of the rails for the tenons. The list given is 
for the dowel-made joints. The following stock list 



n-r 



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33 



JOINT FOR RUNNER AND LEG 



Rail- 



Rail- 



71 



TWO WAYS TO FASTEN TOP 



Detaih of Stand and Stool 

gives the amount of material needed which should 
be ordered planed and sanded. This work can be 



114 



TELEPHONE STAND AND STOOL 



done by hand if the builder lu.s the time and desires 
to have an entire home-made article. However, 
the list is given for the mill-planed material. 

STAND 
4 posts, iy 2 in. square by 29 in. 
2 rails, % by 5 by 11 in. 
1 rail, ?i by l/ 2 by 13 in. 

1 rail, % by 5 by 13 in. 

2 runners, % by \y 2 by 14 in. 
1 top, % by 18 by 20 in. 

1 shelf, 7/ 8 by V2ji by 13% in. 

STOOL 

4 posts, iy 2 in. square by 17 in. 

4 rails, ^ by 4 by 6^4 in. 

4 rails, % by 2 by 6^ in. 

1 stretcher, % by 4 by 7% in. 

1 top, % by 12j| in. square. 

The exact lengths for the posts are given in the 
list. Should the builder desire to square them up, 
allowance must be made for this when ordering 
stock. 

Arrange all the pieces in the position they are to 
occupy in the finished stand and stool and number 
all the joints. Locate the centers and bore holes for 
all the dowels. Assemble the two sides of the table 
first. Notch the runners and fasten them to the 
posts with flat-head screws. Use hot glue on the 
dowel joints if possible. 

Cut the corners out of the shelf to fit the legs and 
assemble the frame of the table. Use round-head 
screws through the rails to hold the shelf. The top 
may be fastened in two ways, with screws through 
cleats on the inside of the rails and under the top, 
or with screws slanting through the upper part of 
the rails and into the top as shown. The stool is 
assembled in the same manner as the stand. 

The stand and stool should be finished to har- 
monize with the furniture and woodwork of the 
room in which they are to be used. 



HOW TO MAKE A DOWEL-CUTTING TOOL 

Secure a piece of steel about *4 i n - thick, 1% in. 
wide and 8 in. long. Drill various sized holes 
through the steel as shown in Fig. 1, leaving the 
edge of each hole as sharp as the drill will make 
them. Cut off a block of wood the length necessary 



p>nf [<nk» 



WD -'T -io_> 



■,! 




Easy Way to Make Dowels 

for the dowels and split it up into pieces about the 
size for the particular dowel to be used. Lay the 
steel on something flat, over a hole of some kind, 
then start one of the pieces of wood in the proper 
size hole for the dowel and drive it through with a 
hammer, as shown in Fig. 2. The sharp edges on 
the steel will cut the dowel as smooth and round as 
if it were turned in a lathe, 



A MEDICINE CABINET 



This cabinet is best made of quarter-sawed oak, as 
this wood is the most easily procured and looks well 
when finished. Order the stock from the mill ready 




Medicine Cabinet Complete 



cut to length, squared and sanded, 
pieces will be needed : 



The following 



4 posts, \y 2 by \y 2 by 28 in. 

4 side rails, Y A by 2 by 10 in. 

4 end rails, & by 2 by 7 in. 

2 door rails, % by 2 by 15 in. 

2 door rails, ^ by 2 by 22^4 in. 

1 door panel, % by liy 2 by 19J4 in. 

1 back panel, % by 15^4 by 23 1 / 4 in. 

2 end panels, y A by ($y 2 by 23 »4 in. 

2 pieces for top and bottom, y 2 by 6& by 15 & m - 

Square the four posts and bevel the tops as shown. 



MEDICINE CABINET 



117 



Cut grooves in them with a plow plane to receive the 
14-in, panels. The tenons on the rails are cut *4 in. 
wide and ht into the grooves in the posts the same 
as the panels. The rails have grooves cut at the 



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Details of Medicine Cabinet 



inside edges for the panels. The front posts do not 
have grooves on the inside but have two mortises, 
one at each end for the top and bottom rails. The 
back has a panel fitted in the same as the ends. See 



118 



MEDICINE CABINET 



that the pieces fit together perfecly square and 
tight, then glue them together and give it time to 
dry. 

The top and bottom boards are next put in place. 
The top is placed in the center of the top rails while 
the bottom is put even with the lower edge of the 
bottom rails, as shown in the detail drawing. The 
door frame is mitered at the corners and rabbeted 
on the inner edge to take the panel. A mirror can 
be used in place of the panel if desired. Suitable 
hinges and a catch, which can be purchased at a 
hardware store, should be supplied for the door. 

The shelves are of soft wood and are to be ar- 
ranged to suit the maker. Before applying a finish, 
go over the cabinet with fine sandpaper and remove 
all the surplus glue about the joints and the rough 
spots, else the finish will not take evenly. The finish 
can be any one of the many different kinds supplied 
by the trade for this purpose. 




CONTENTS 



Arm Chair 66 

Arm Chair, Curved Back 18 

Basket, Waste Paper. 27 

Bedstead, Oak 99 

Bend Wood, How to 40 

Bookcase 70 

Buffet, Oak . . . /. 5 

Cabinet, Medicine 116 

Cedar Chest, Oak-Bound 79 

Chair, Arm Q(y 

Chair, Curved Back Arm 18 

Chair, Rocking 14 

Chair, Side 62 

Chest, Oak-Bound Cedar 79 

China Closet 47 

China Closet, Another '. 94 

Clock, Arts-Crafts Mantel 52 

Clock, Plain Oak Hall 10 

Couch, Oak, with Cushions 33 

Desk, Lady's Writing 108 

Desk, Oak Writing 29 

Dining Table, Extension 77 

Dowel-Cutting Tool, How to Make 115 

Dowel Holes, Tool for Marking, . . . 23 

Dresser for Child's Playroom 85 

Electric Shade for Dining Room 37 

Footstool, Leather-Covered , 50 

Footstool, Oak 101 

Grille with Pedestals to Match 107 



120 



CONTENTS 



Hall Clock, Plain Oak 10 

Lamp, Arts and Crafts Oil ........... 91 

Lamp Stand ]]\ " 73 

Library Set in Pyro-Carving . 105 

Magazine Table 24 

Mantel Clock, Arts-Crafts 52 

Medicine Cabinet . . . 116 

Mortises, Tool for Making 84 

Music Stand ' * 55 

Oak Stain 9 

Plate Rack ............... 21 

Pyro-Carving, Library Set in * . *105 

Rocking Chair 14 

Screws, Making Hold in End Grain of Wood' ." ." .' 58 

Shade, Electric for Dining Room 37 

Side Chair 52 

Smoking Stand ] 43 

Stain, Oak 9 

Stand and Stool, Telephone 112 

Stand, Lamp 73 

Stand, Music 55 

Stand, Smoking 43 

Stool, Telephone Stand and 112 

Table, Extension Dining 77 

Table — Library Set in Pyro-Carving 105 

Table, Magazine 24 

Telephone Stand and Stool 112 

Tenons, Cutting with a Hand-Saw ... 90 

Tool, Dowel-Cutting, How to Make 115 

Tool for Marking Dowel Holes. 23 

Tool for Making Mortises. 84 

Wall Case with a Mirror Door 59 

Waste Paper Basket ] 27 

Wood, How to Bend .*...'.".* 40 




A GOOD, USEFUL BOOK 

Wood-Working for 
Amateur Craftsmen 

"WRITTEN SO YOU CAN UNDERSTAND IT" 

By IRA S. GRIFFITH, A. B. 

128 Pages, 125 Illustrations 
Cloth Cover, Size 5x7 inches 

Price 

50 Cents 

Postpaid 

One of the latest of Popular Mechanics Series 
of Industrial Handbooks 

This book was especially designed to cover every 
essential step from the A BCto the X Y Z of wood- 
working. The chapters dealing with making special 
articles bring out every cut, joint and process used in 
this important trade, and the proper use and care of 
tools, working up of materials, etc., are treated 
thoroughly and plainly. 

CONTENTS: 

Making Out a Stock Bill— Laying Out Rough Stock— Hand 
Saws— Sawing with Hand Saws— Planes : How to Set and 
Adjust the Irons-Squaring Up Mill Planed Stock— Squar- 
ing Up Rough Stock— Whetting Plane Irons and Chisels- 
Grinding Plane Irons and Chisels — Making a Bird Box — 
Making a Tabouret— How to Make an Umbrella Stand— Mak- 
ing a Magazine Stand— Making a Table— Making a Cabinet. 

A valuable book for either self instruction or 
use in manual training courses 

Order of your Newsdealer, Bookseller or direct from 

Popular Mechanics Book Dept, Publishers 

CHICAGO, ILLINOIS 



Metal Work and Etching 

"WRITTEN SO YOU CAN UNDERSTAND IT" 

By JOHN D. ADAMS 




ONE of the latest of the POPULAR 
MECHANICS series of industrial 
handbooks. A complete manual for 

art metal workers giving every detail for 
making a great variety of useful and orna- 
mental objects such as book ends, desk sets, 
pad corners, paper knives and letter openers, 
stationery racks, rocking blotter, desk calen- 
dars, match boxes, tie and pipe racks, whisk 
broom holders, candle sconce, arts and crafts 
jewelry, hinges, drawer pulls, etc. 
p6 Pages, Richly Illustrated, Cloth, Size jx? Inches 

Price, SO Cents, Postpaid 

ORDER OF TOUR NEWSDEALER, BOOKSELLER, OR 

Popular Mechanics Book Dept, Publishers 

CHICAGO 



How to Make a 

Wireless Set 

By ARTHUR MOORE 

A book of 96 pages, bound in 
cloth, explaining in an under- 
standable manner the construc- 
tion of an outfit suitable for 
transmitting four or five miles. 
This set can be easily con- 
structed at a small cost by any 
boy of ordinary ability. 

Complete details with illustrations 

Price 50 Cents Postpaid 

Order of your newsdealer or 
send direct to the publishers 

Popular Mechanics Book Dept. 

CHICAGO, ILL. 



NOW READY 



"WRITTF\. c/-v v^i ■ ~ a... . . *+^ 



~) 



r 



"WRITTEN SO YOU CAN UNDERSTAND IT" 

By HENRY C. REETZ 



Price 50 Cents Postpaid 




lia PAGES, FULLY ILLUS.. CLOTH COVER. SIZE 5X7 IN. 



One of the latest of Popular Mechanics Series of 
Industrial Handbooks 

PHIS handbook gives brief and practical direc- 
tions calculated to be of benefit to those already 
engaged, as well as to those about to engage in the 
electroplating business, with no more technical 
detail than is necessary for practical work, and 
yet with such explicit directions concerning the 
actual operations as an old hand at the business 
thinks may be useful to the beginner. 

CONTENTS: 
Introduction — Electrical Equipment — Shop Equipment 
Cleanmg Goods before Plating -Copperplatin^4«c&,i^ 
-St lverplatinfc-Goldplaung- Miscellaneoul- First Art to 
the Injured— Business Suggestions. 

=== Order of your Newsdealer. Bookseller 01 = ==== 

?«2f™ R MECHA NICS BOOK DEPT. 

fUBUSHERS CHICAGO I 
. I 



READ THIS WONDERFUL STORY 

HEAT 

By J. GORDON OGDEN, Ph.D. 

PROF. OF PHYSICS, FIFTH AVENUE HIGH SCHOOL, PITTSBURG 

Price Postpaid, SO Cents 

128 Pages Bound in Cloth Illustrated 



Thoroughly Understandable Instructive 

Immensely Interesting 

This book consists of a series of articles, 
each complete in itself, yet all pertaining 
to heat and its relation to modern mechanics. 

FEW people realize that fire is the most remarkable and 
valuable discovery ever made by man. Prior to this, man 
was brother to the brute, but with the coming of fire, 
came all the wonderful development that has enabled man to 
assert and defend his claim as lord of creation. We are only 
in the infancy of high temperature development, yet read 
of the harnessing of intense heat to the wheels of progress ; 
the contrivances whereby we are able to emulate the vol- 
cano in our laboratories so far as heat is concerned and weld 
steel rails in the street where they lie; the discovery of uses of 
rare metals in industrial lines by aid of heat. Investigation of 
the realm of low temperatures also discloses some wonderful 
facts. All these, and many other phases of this interesting 
subject are treated as shown by the following list of chapters: 

1— Nature of Heat and How It Is Measured. 2— How 
Low Temperatures Are Produced. 3 — Some Effects of 
Low Temperature Upon Matter. 4— The Production 
and Uses of High Temperature. 5— High Tempera- 
tures and the Rare Metals. 6 — How Heat Travels. 
7— How Heat is Measured. 8— Expansion and Con- 
traction. 9— Energy and Fuels. 10— The Manufacture 
of Artificial Ice. 11— Steam Boilers and Engines. 

POPULAR MECHANICS BOOK DEPT. 
CHICAGO, ILL.